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Cardiovascular System

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Cardiovascular System
Objectives
After studying this chapter you will be able
to:
•Name the parts of the cardiovascular system and
discuss the function of each part.
•Define combining forms used in building words that
relate to the cardiovascular system.
•Identify the meaning of related abbreviations.
•Name the common diagnoses, clinical procedures,
and laboratory tests used in treating the
cardiovascular system.
Objectives Part 2
•List and define the major pathological conditions
of the cardiovascular system.
•Explain the meaning of surgical terms related to
the cardiovascular system.
•Recognize common pharmacological agents used
in treating the cardiovascular system.
The Heart
The Heart
•Pumps blood
through the blood
vessels to all body
cells.
•Is divided into
right and left
sides by the
•Is covered by a
protective sac
called the
____cardium which
is divided into two
layers the visceral
and parietal
pericardium.
•Each side
consists of an
atria and a
ventricle.
__________
Layers of the Heart
Layers of the Heart
Inside the pericardium, the
heart has three layers of
tissue.
•___cardium (outermost layer)
endocardium
•___cardium (middle layer of
muscular tissue)
•______cardium (inner layer)
myocardium
epicardium
Heart
Chambers
Heart
Chambers
•Right and left atria are the
______ chambers of the heart.
•Right and left ventricles are
the lower chambers of the
heart.
•Fibers in the ventricles
(_______ fibers) cause the
ventricles to contract.
•Blood flows through the heart in only one
direction regulated by valves.
Arteries and Veins
________
•Carry blood
away from the
heart.
V
e
i
n
s
•Carry blood
________ the heart.
Valves of
Valves
ofthe
theHeart
Heart
Atrioventricular Valves
•________ valve
(mitral)
Semilunar Valves
•Pulmonary valve
•_______ valve
•Tricuspid valve
Cross Sectional Top View of Heart
Control blood flow
within the heart
Prevent the backflow
of blood into the heart
Coronary Coronary
Circulation
Circulation
Circulation of blood within the heart muscle by
the _________ arteries.
•Coronary arteries branch off of the _______, which is the
largest artery in the body.
•Coronary arteries encircle the heart to supply the heart
muscle with about ______ gallons of blood daily.
•The heart requires more _______ than any other organ in
the body except the brain.
Pulmonary
Pulmonary
Circulation
Circulation of blood
between the heart and
lungs.
•Pulmonary
________ are the
only arteries to
carry blood low in
oxygen.
•Pulmonary ______
are the only veins
to carry oxygen
rich blood.
Circulation
Systemic Systemic
CirculationCirculation
Flow of blood between the
heart and the cells of the
entire body.
artery
arteriole _________
venule
•Blood travels through
the body in a surge as
a result of the heart
contractions.
•Blood vessels
become smaller in
diameter as the blood
leaves the heart.
vein
•Remember arteries leave the heart and veins
return to the heart. Capillaries are the ______
blood vessels and they serve as a transfer
station between the arteries and veins.
Blood
Blood Pressure
Pressure
•Measures the force of the
blood surging against the
walls of the arteries.
________
Contraction phase of the heart
________
Relaxation phase of the heart
Conduction System
Conduction
System
Sinoatrial node (_________)
Atrioventricular ______
_______ of His
Right and Left ______ Branches
________ Fibers
Conduction
System
Conduction System Part
2
The heart’s __________ causes regular contracting
of the myocardium resulting in a regular
heartbeat or pulse.
Contraction Phases
•Polarization (________)
•Repolarization (______)
•Depolarization (__________)
Conduction
System
Conduction System Part
Factors affecting the heart rate:
3
•______ status
•Physical activity
•__________
During ____ cardiac cycle the heart contracts and
relaxes.
Cardiac Cycle = 1 contraction + 1 relaxation
Fetal Circulation
Fetal
Circulation
Structures unique
to the fetus:
•Foramen ovale
•Ductus arteriosus
•Ductus venosus
Note the umbilical
cord contains two
arteries and one
vein.
Combining
Forms
&
Combining Form
Meaning
Abbreviations
[angi(o)]
angi (o)
blood _______
aort (o)
aorta
arteri (o)
______
ather (o)
fatty matter
atri (o)
_________
cardi (o)
heart
hemangi (o)
Blood ______
Combining
Forms
&
Combining Form
Meaning
Abbreviations [pericardi(o)]
pericardium
pericardi (o)
phleb (o)
________
sphygm (o)
pulse
thromb (o)
blood _____
vas (o)
blood vessel
ven (o)
____________
Combining
Forms
&
Abbreviation
Meaning
Abrbeviations
[AcG]
AcG
accelerator globulin
AF
atrial __________
AS
aortic stenosis
ASCVD
_______sclerotic cardiovascular
disease
ASD
atrial septal defect
ASHD
__________sclerotic heart disease
AV
atrioventricular
Combining Forms
&
Meaning
Abbreviations
blood [BP]
pressure
Abbreviation
BP
CABG
coronary artery ______
graft
CAD
coronary artery _______
cath
catheter
CCU
________ care unit
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHF
congestive heart ______
Combining Forms
&
Meaning
Abbreviations
[CO]
cardiac ________
Abbreviation
CO
CPK
creatine phosphokin____
CPR
_______pulmonary resuscitation
CVA
Cerebro_______ accident
CVD
cardiovascular ______
DSA
digital subtraction angiography
DVT
deep venous __________
Diagnostic, Procedural &
Laboratory
Cardiology is the
treatment ofTests
cardiovascular
diseases and the physician who specializes in heart
conditions is called a cardiolog_____.
Auscultation may reveal
the following abnormal
heart sounds:
•_______
•Bruit
•_______
Common
Diagnostic
Tests
Common Diagnostic Tests
Exercise tolerance test (ETT)
•Patients exercise on a ___________
and the technician monitors the
heart rate and respiratory rate.
Electrocardiography
•Produces an electrocardiogram
which measures the amount of
____________ that flows through the
heart.
•Electrodes placed on the skin at
specific points detect the heart’s
electrical impulses.
Tests Involving X-Rays
Tests involving x-rays
•Angiocardiogram
-injection of a ____ followed by x-rays of the heart and
the heart’s large blood vessels
Others Tests
•angiogram
•arteriogram
•aortogram
•venogram(phlebogram)
•ventriculogram
Ultrasound Tests
Ultrasound tests produce images by using sound
waves.
Doppler ultrasound
•Measures _______
______ in certain
blood vessels
Echocardiography
•Records ______
_______ to show the
structure and
movement of the
heart
Other Noninvasive Tests
Other Noninvasive Tests
•Cardiac scan
•Positron emission tomography (____)
•Multiple-gated acquisition (_____) angiography
•Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Other procedures require insertion of an actual
device such as a catheter into a vein or artery, and
the device is guided to the heart as with cardiac
catheterizations.
Laboratory Tests
Laboratory Tests
The flow of blood
in the arteries is
affected by the
amount of
cholesterol and
triglycerides
contained in the
blood.
LDL
HDL
•_____-density lipoproteins actually
remove lipids from the arteries and
protect from the formation of
blockages.
•___-density lipoproteins and very
low-density lipoproteins cause
cholesterol to form blockages in
the arteries.
Laboratory Test Part 2
Laboratory Tests
Also help to diagnose
myocardial infarction.
•Troponin T and
troponin I are
proteins found in
the heart and tests
•Cardiac enzymes also called
for these can
serum enzyme tests measure the
diagnose a
amount of enzymes released into
myocardial
the blood by the damaged heart
infarction faster
muscle during a myocardial
than most other lab
infarction.
tests.
-CPK (creatine phosphokin___)
-LDH (lactate dehydrogen___)
-GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transamin___)
Risk Factors to
Developing
Cardiovascular
Disease (CVD)
Pathology
poor diet
smoking
lack of _________
Heart Rhythm
Abnormal rhythms are called arrhythmias.
•______cardia
•Flutter
•Tachycardia
•_______
•Atrial Fibrillation
•Gallop
•Premature atrial
contractions (PAC)
•Premature
ventricular
contractions (PVC)
Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure abnormalities can
damage the heart and other body
systems.
•Hypertension (too _____)
•Hypotension (too _____)
•Essential hypertension occurs without any
specific cause.
•Secondary hypertension has a known cause, for
example, high-_____ intake.
Diseases
of
the
Blood
Vessels
________
_________
atheroma
Diseases of the Blood Vessels
embolus
varicose
veins
phlebitis
Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Artery Disease
Refers to any condition that reduces the
nourishment the heart receives from the _______
flowing through the arteries of the heart, such
as:
Aortic stenosis
_______ Pectoris
Coarctation of the aorta
Pulmonary artery stenosis
General
Heart
&
Lung
Diseases
General Heart and Lung Diseases
Myocardial infarction
•Disruption of ______ ______ to the heart muscle; also
called heart attack.
Cardiac Arrest
•Also known as __________, is the sudden stopping of the heart.
Congestive Heart Failure
•Occurs when the heart is unable to ______ the necessary
amount of blood.
Specific Inflammatory Heart
Conditions
Specific Inflammatory
Conditions of the Heart
•bacterial endocarditis
•endocarditis
•pericarditis
•myocarditis
Other Conditions
•cardiomyopathy
•intracardiac tumor
Congenital
Heart
Conditions
Congenital Heart Conditions
•Patent ductus arteriosus
•________ defect
•Tetralogy of Fallot
Valve Conditions
•Aortic regurgitation
•_________ insufficiency
•Mitral valve prolapse
•Tricuspid _________
•Valvulitis
•Rheumatic heart disease
Surgical Terms
The goal of most cardiovascular surgery is to
improve _____ ____ to all body cells.
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
(_____) is a surgical procedure in which a balloon
catheter is inserted into a blocked blood vessel to
increase the blood flow of that vessel.
PTCA
Narrowed artery with balloon catheter positioned.
Inflated balloon presses against arterial wall.
Cardiac Catheterization
Cardiac Catheterization is the most common type
of operation performed in the United States.
Other procedures involving catheters:
Balloon valvuloplasty
•Used to open narrowed cardiac ______ openings.
Coronary angioplasty
•Used to open a blood ___________.
Angioscopy
•Uses a fiberoptic catheter to view the interior of a blood
vessel
Coronary Bypass Surgery
Some conditions require
the creation of a bypass
around blockages.
____________ bypass surgery
•A vein from another part of the body is often used as a graft
to bypass an arterial blockage.
•Saphenous _____ and the mammary arteries are commonly
used as grafts for this procedure.
Fontan’s operation
•Creates a bypass from the right atrium to the main
___________ artery.
Removal
& and
Replacement
Surgical
removal
replacementSurgery
procedures
•Heart transplant
•Thrombectomy
•Embolectomy
•Atherectomy
•Valve replacement
•Endarterectomy
•Arteriotomy
•Valvotomy
•Venipuncture
Surgical reconstruction and repair procedures
•Valvuloplasty
•Anastomosis
Pharmacology
CARDIOVASCULAR
Drug therapy for
the cardiovascular
system generally
treats the following
conditions:
CONDITIONS
•___________
•heart attack
•high ______ pressure
•high cholesterol
•congestive heart
____________
•rhythm disorders
•vascular problems
Antianginals
Relieve ____ and
prevent attacks
of angina
Antianginals
Three Categories of
Drugs:
•nitrates
(nitroglycerine)
•_____ blockers
(atenolol)
•calcium ________
blockers
(nifedipine)
Hypertension
Medications for:
High blood
pressure may
require treatment
with one or more
drugs.
HYPERTENSION
•Vaso______
•___________
•angiotensin
converting enzyme
(ACE) inhibitors
Congestive HeartMedications
Failure for:
Congestive heart
failure is treated
with medications
that increase
myocardial _____.
In certain
situations the
blood vessels
may need to be
narrowed as
well.
CONGESTIVE
HEART
FAILURE
•ACE inhibitors
•__________
•cardiotonics
•Vaso___________
Rhythm Disorders
Medications for:
Rhythm disorders
are treated with
medications that
_________ the heart
rate by affecting
the nervous
system that
controls the heart
rate.
RHYTHM
DISORDERS
•______ blockers
•calcium channel
blockers
Pharmacology – Other
Other Medications
Medications
drugs help the
body excrete
unwanted cholesterol.
________________ and
antiplatelet
medications inhibit the
ability of the blood to
________.
Medications used for vascular
problems may include drugs
that decrease the ___________
of the blood or drugs that
increase the amount of blood
the heart is able to pump.
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