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Characterization etc.

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CHARACTERIZATION,
ETC.
In Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice
D I R E C T V S. I N D I R E C T
C H A R AC T E R I Z AT I O N
Direct Characterization
Indirect Characterization
 Explicit presentation by
 The presentation of the
the author of the character
character in action, with little or
through direct exposition,
no explicit comment by the
either in an introductory
block or piecemeal
throughout the work.
author, in the expectation that
the reader can deduce the
attributes of the actor from the
actions.
WHICH IS INDIRECT
C H A R AC T E R I Z AT I O N ?
 Mr. Bennet was so odd a mixture
 “People who suffer as much as I do
of quick parts, sarcastic humour,
from nervous complaints can have no
reserve, and caprice, that the
great inclination for talking. Nobody
experience of three-and-twenty years
can tell what I suffer! But it is always
had been insufficient to make his wife
so. Those who do not complain are
understand his character.
never pitied!" (Spoken by Mrs. Bennet)
RO U N D V S. F L AT C H A R AC T E R S
Round Characters
Flat Characters
 Also called three-
 Also called two-dimensional
dimensional characters
characters
 Multifaceted, human being
 More a type than a human being
 Capable of inconsistencies
 Subject to growth
 Example: Elizabeth, Aunty
Ifeoma, Father Amadi
 Usually not subject to growth
 Example: Jane, Father Benedict
DY N A M I C V S. S TAT I C C H A R AC T E R S
Static Character
Dynamic Character
 Changes little if at all
 Modified by the actions
 Things happen to a
and experiences
character without things
 One objective of the work
happening within.
is to reveal the consequences
 Example: Bingley, Papa
of these actions
 Example: Darcy, Kambili
C A R I C AT U R E
Writing that exaggerates certain individual
qualities of a person and produces a ridiculous
effect. Unlike satire, caricature is likely to treat
merely personal qualities
• Example: Mr. Collins’s obsequiousness
FOIL
Literally a leaf of bright metal placed under a jewel to
increase its brilliance
In literature, the term is applied to any person who through
contrast underscores the distinctive characteristics of another.
Example: Wickham is a FOIL for Darcy; Amaka and
Kambili
EPISTOLARY NOVEL
 A novel in which the narrative is carried forward by LETTERS
written by one or more of the characters. It has the merit of giving
the opportunity to present the feelings and reactions without the
intrusion of the author; it furthers gives a sense of immediacy
because the LETTERS are written in the thick of the action.
 Pride and Prejudice is NOT an EPISTOLARY NOVEL, but it
does involve several examples of EPISTOLARY WRITING.
S A RC A S M V S. V E R BA L I RO N Y
Sarcasm
Verbal Irony
A caustic and bitter
 The actual intent is
expression of strong
expressed in words that carry
disapproval.
Personal, jeering, and
intended to hurt
the opposite meaning
 Usually less harsh than
sarcasm
EXAMPLES
Sarcasm
Verbal Irony
 “You will have a charming
 “There is a mixture of servility
mother-in-law, indeed; and, of
and self-importance in his letter
course, she will always be at
which promises well. I am
Pemberley with you.” (Miss
impatient to see him.” (Mr.
Bingley to Darcy upon
Bennet after reading the
learning of his admiration for
letter from Mr. Collins)
Elizabeth)
FOCALIZATION
 The perspective through which a narrative is presented. By presenting
the narrative through the eyes and words of various characters, the narrator
is less removed from the story and the reader is more intimate with the
characters (more in their heads). Austen does this in a variety of ways such
as epistles and indirect speech, in which the language and thoughts of the
characters mix with the voice of the narrator.
EXAMPLE:
 “Mrs John Dashwood did not at all approve of what her husband
intended to do for his sisters. To take three thousand pounds from the
fortune of their dear little boy, would be impoverishing him to the
most dreadful degree. She begged him to think again on the subject.
How could he answer it to himself to rob his child, and his only
child too, of so large a sum?”
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