close

Se connecter

Se connecter avec OpenID

CHAPTER 1: BEGINNINGS TO 1763

IntégréTéléchargement
CHAPTER 1:
BEGINNINGS TO 1763
EXPLORATION & THE COLONIAL
ERA
THE AMERICAS, WEST AFRICA, AND
EUROPE – SECTION 1
►
►
►
►
►
Ancient Cultures arrived
about 22,000 years ago via
a land bridge
Earliest settlers were
hunters
Agriculture thrived starting
about 5,000 years ago
Some Natives remained
Nomadic
Maya, Aztec, and Inca
societies flourished
Controversial evidence suggests
the earliest inhabitants came in
crude boats, most came by land.
The Ice Age caused sea levels to
drop as most of the water was
frozen.
A land bridge was formed
between Siberia and Alaska in the
Bering Sea.
• followed migratory birds they hunted
into N. America.
• ice melted and the bridge was covered
with water
• People continued to move southward
until they hit the tip of S. America.
• Prominent civilizations
• The Mayans in Central America
• Incas in Peru
• Aztecs in Mexico.
NATIVE AMERICAS IN 1400S
► Native
American
societies in North
America were as varied
as the geography
► The Pueblo (SW) and
Iroquois (NE) were
two famous tribes
► Most of the tribes in
America had common
religious views, trade
patterns & values
•Agriculture showed how sophisticated the Native
Americans were. Most of the crops were corn.
•5000 B.C. corn became staple crop in Mexico
• foundation to the Aztec and Incan Empires
• hunters-gatherers to settled people.
•1200 B.C. • Corn planting reached the present-day
American Southwest resulting in a powerful
Pueblo culture.
• irrigation system using the Rio Grande
Valley.
• They lived in multi-storied buildings when
the Spanish explorers arrived.
•The Iroquois civilization equivalent to
the Incas and Aztecs
•Iroquois were inspired by Hiawatha.
•political and organizational skill that
would establish military alliances with
neighbors, even Europeans.
•They weren’t massive and they were
not always organized, most of them
scattered about.
•Authority to female figures
A String of Green Bean History
► The
common bean was
cultivated in ancient
Mesoamerica as early as
8,000 years ago?
► Beans were even found in a
“mummy covering” of a
woman in a Peruvian
cemetery dating back to preInca civilization.
The Three Sisters
► Native
Americans figured out that if they
planted beans, corn and squash together,
the plants did better than growing alone.
► Corn
is the oldest sister. She stands
tall in the center.
► Squash is the next sister. She
grows over the mound. With her
leaves, she protects her sisters
from weeds and shades the soil
from the sun keeping it cool and
moist.
► Beans are the third sister. She
climbs through squash and then up
corn to bind all together as she
reaches for the sun.
WEST AFRICAN SOCIETIES OF THE
1400S
►
►
►
►
Long established,
sophisticated societies
existed in Western Africa
The Kingdom of Songhai
controlled trans-Sahara
trade
Kingdom of Benin and
Kongo were two famous
dynasties
Village and family bonds
formed the basis of life
EUROPEAN SOCIETIES OF THE
1400S
► European
villages had
a long tradition of
social hierarchy –
complete with nobles,
merchants & peasants
► Christianity played a
critical role – religious
leaders had power
Martin Luther
Christianity Shapes Europe
► Christianity
and
Islam came into
conflict.
► Christian armies
tried to push
Muslims out of the
Holy Land.
► This
became known
as the Crusades.
► Even after two
centuries of fighting
the Crusades were
not successful.
The Reformation
Two Important Consequences
of the Crusades:
► Opened
up
Asian trade
routes . . .
► Weakened the
power of
European
nobles . . .
The Reformation
► The
Reformation in
the early 1500s led
to a split in the
church
► Those who
supported the
Reformation were
called Protestants.
During the 1400’s
four major nations were taking
shape in Europe
► Portugal
► Spain
► France
► England
The Renaissance
►A
cultural awakening
in Europe
► The 14th century
revival of classical art,
architecture,
literature and
learning that
originated in Italy and
spread throughout
Europe
The Printing Press helped spread
the ideas of the Renaissance
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION
► The
countries of
Portugal, Spain, France
and England explored
in the late 1400s for
God, Gold, and Glory
► Improved mapmaking,
better sailboats,
compasses, astrolabes,
Prince Henry– all led to
better exploration
Not a Space Race?
SPANISH NORTH AMERICA –
SECTION 2
Columbus crosses the
Atlantic in October of 1492
and lands in San Salvador
(“Holy Savior”)
► He spent about 3 months
exploring Islands in the
Bahamas
► Europeans used advanced
weapons to force locals
into labor: Plantation
System
► Disease devastated Native
population
►
IMPACT OF COLUMBUS



On Africans- Before slave
trade ended in the 1800s,
10 million Africans taken
On Europeans- Biggest
voluntary migration in
world history
On Trade- Columbian
Exchange meant new
goods & products flowed
between continents
The Columbian Biological Exchange
Old World to New
World:
Diseases: Smallpox
Measles
Chicken Pox
Malaria
Yellow Fever
Influenza
The Common Cold
New World to Old World:
Syphilis
The Columbian Biological
Exchange
Animals:
Old World to New
World:
Horses
Cattle
Pigs
Sheep
Goats
Chickens
New World to Old World:
Turkeys
Llamas
Alpacas
Guinea Pigs
The Columbian Biological Exchange
Old World to New
World:
Plants:
Rice
Wheat
Barley
Oats
Coffee
Sugarcane
Bananas
Melons
Olives
Dandelions
Daisies
Clover
Ragweed
Kentucky Bluegrass
New World to Old World:
Corn (Maize)
Potatoes (White & Sweet Varieties)
Beans (Snap, Kidney, & Lima
Varieties)
Tobacco
Peanuts
Squash
Peppers
Tomatoes
Pumpkins
Pineapples
Cacao (Source of Chocolate)
Chicle (Source of Chewing Gum)
Papayas
Manioc (Tapioca)
Guavas
Avocados
SPAIN CLAIMS A NEW EMPIRE
►
►
►
►
Spanish explorers
(Conquistadors) seized
much of the Americas
Cortes conquered the
Aztecs in Mexico
Pizzaro conquered the
Incas in Peru
Exploitation of local
populations was significant
– Encomienda System
The encomienda is a labor system
that was employed mainly by the
Spanish crown during the
colonization of the Americas and the
Philippines.
In the encomienda, the crown granted a
person a specified number of natives for
whom they were to take responsibility. The
receiver of the grant was to protect the
natives from warring tribes and to instruct
them in the Spanish language and in the
Catholic faith. In return, they could exact
tribute from the natives in the form of
labor, gold or other products, such as in
corn, wheat or chickens.
SPAIN EXPLORES SOUTHWEST AND
WESTERN AMERICA
►
►
►
California
Missions
►
Mid-1500s, Spain explored
much of what is today the
SW & West of the USA
New Mexico settled by
Spanish priest who
converted Natives
(Pueblos)
Texas area had 30
expeditions in 16th century
California was site of
numerous missions
The Spanish missions in California
comprise a series of religious and military
outposts established by Spanish Catholics
of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and
1823 to spread the Christian faith among
the local Native Americans.
The missions represented the first major
effort by Europeans to colonize the Pacific
Coast region, and gave Spain a valuable
toehold in the frontier land. The settlers
introduced European livestock, fruits,
vegetables, cattle, horses and ranching into
the California region; however, the Spanish
occupation of California also brought with it
serious negative consequences to the Native
American populations with whom the
missionaries came in contact.
The government of Mexico shut down the
missions in the 1830s. In the end, the
mission had mixed results in its objective to
convert, educate, and "civilize" the
indigenous population and transforming the
natives into Spanish colonial citizens.
What are the negative outcomes
of the mission system?
► Page
20
Why was Pope punished.
► Page
20
Where is Spain’s influence most
notable in the U.S. today?
► Page
20
EARLY BRITISH COLONIES –
SECTION 3
►
►
►
►
Beginning in the early
1600s, the English
established colonies along
the eastern coast of North
America
1607: Jamestown was first
to be settled
John Smith led this group
of settlers
Colony struggled at first,
then was saved by
Tobacco crop
What is an indentured servant?
► refers
to the historical practice of contracting
to work for a fixed period of time, typically
three to seven years, in exchange for
transportation, food, clothing, lodging and
other necessities during the term of
indenture.
First enslaved Africans arrived in
Virginia in 1619.
What was the conflict about in
Virginia?
Nathaniel Bacon
► Bacon’s
Rebellion
PURITANS CREATE A “NEW
ENGLAND”
► The
PURITAN, OR “PILGRIM”
16th century
Reformation caused a
split in the Christian
Church; Catholics and
Protestants
► One extreme group of
Protestant reformers –
the Puritans sought to
cleanse or “purify”
their religion of all
traces of Catholicism
What was the goal of the
Puritans?
Who was John Winthrop?
. . . A city upon a hill.
Why did the Puritan’s come to
this new world?
Were they tolerant of other
religious beliefs?
What is a dissenter?
► Who
was Roger
Williams
► Who was Anne
Hutchinson
COLONISTS MEET RESISTANCE
►
►
New England Colonists
(Puritans) soon conflicted
with the Native Americans
over land & religion
King Philip’s War was
fought in 1675 between
the Natives and Puritans
ending a year later with
many dead and the
Natives retreating
SETTLING THE MIDDLE COLONIES
► Dominated
by Dutch
and Quaker settlers,
the Middle Colonies
were founded in the
mid-1600s
► William Penn led
Quakers as they
colonized Pennsylvania
and Delaware
ENGLAND’S COLONIES PROSPER
►
►
►
Throughout the 1600s and
1700s, more British
Colonies were established
By 1752, the English
Crown had assumed more
& more responsibility for
the 13 colonies
Mercantilism & Navigation
Acts were two such ways
that the English
government controlled the
colonies
King
George
III
MERCANTILISM: AN
ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN
WHICH NATIONS SEEK TO
INCREASE THEIR WEALTH
BY OBTAINING GOLD &
SILVER AND WITH A
FAVORABLE BALANCE OF
TRADE
MERCANTILISM
NAVIGATION ACTS
1651- England’s
Parliament passed a series
of laws known as the
Navigation Acts
► These laws restricted the
colonies shipping & trade
► Ships, destinations, crews,
goods: All strictly
regulated by the English
► The colonies were
developing a spirit of selfdetermination. Therefore,
they were NOT happy with
these restrictions
►
► 1.
Only British ships
could transport
imported and
exported goods
from the colonies.
►
2. The only people
who were allowed
to trade with the
colonies had to be
British citizens.
► 3.
Commodities
such as sugar,
tobacco, and cotton
wool which were
produced in the
colonies could be
exported only to
British ports
THE COLONIES COME OF AGE –
SECTION 4
►
►
►
New England, Middle
Colonies, and the South –
all developed distinct
economies and societies
In the South, rural
Plantations with a single
cash crop were common
Small Southern farmers
(Germans, Scots, Irish)
and African slaves made
up the majority of people
Southern Plantation
THE MIDDLE PASSAGE
► During
the 17th century,
Africans endured a
transatlantic crossing
from Africa to the North
American Colonies
► Cruelty characterized
the months long
journey – 13% died on
route
AFRICANS MAINTAIN PARTS OF
THEIR CULTURE
Despite enslavement,
Africans coped with the
horrors of slavery via
music, dance, and
storytelling
► Slaves also resisted their
position of subservience by
faking illness, breaking
tools, or work slowdowns
► Others were more radical
and tried escape & revolt
►
NORTHERN COLONIES COMMERCE
THRIVES
LIBERTY BELL
►
►
►
The development of cities,
expansion of trade, and
diverse economies
gradually made the North
radically different from the
South
Philly was the 2nd largest
British port
Farming differed from the
South: smaller, more
diverse crops in North
THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE
GREAT AWAKENING
►
►
►
1700s: An intellectual
movement known as the
Enlightenment began in
Europe and a religious
movement known as the
Great Awakening started in
the Colonies
The Enlightenment
emphasized reason,
science, and observation
and led to the discovery of
natural laws
Copernicus, Galileo,
Franklin and Newton were
key figures
RELIGIOUS REVIVAL: THE GREAT
AWAKENING
►
►
►
►
A series of religious
revivals aimed at restoring
devotion & piety swept
through the colonies in the
mid-1700s
Jonathan Edwards was a
Puritan priest from New
England who was
instrumental in the
movement
Fire & Brimstone style of
worship; large, emotionally
charged crowds
Like the Enlightenment the
movement stressed the
importance of the
individual
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
►
►
►
►
Competition in North
America led to a war
(1754-1763) between old
rivals France and England
The French in North
America were tradesmen
(furs) not long-term
inhabitants
Ohio River valley was the
site of the conflict
The Colonists supported
the British while the
Natives supported the
French
FRENCH INDIAN WAR BY
NAT YOUNGBLOOD
BRITAIN DEFEATS AN OLD ENEMY
While the French had early
victories, the British led by
William Pitt and George
Washington eventually
defeated the French
► Treaty of Paris ends the
war in 1763
► Brits claim most of North
America including Florida
(from French ally Spain) &
Canada
► Native Americans also
realized a French loss was
a Native American loss
►
WILLIAM PITT ON A
COIN
PROCLAMATION LINE OF 1763
►
►
To avoid further costly
conflicts with Native
Americans, the British
government prohibited
colonists from settling
west of the Appalachian
Mountains
The Proclamation
established a line along
the Appalachian that
colonists could not cross
(They did anyway)
Auteur
Document
Catégorie
Uncategorized
Affichages
9
Taille du fichier
8 429 KB
Étiquettes
1/--Pages
signaler