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CHAPTER 1: BEGINNINGS TO 1763

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CHAPTER 1,2, and 3:
BEGINNINGS TO 1763
EXPLORATION & THE COLONIAL
ERA
THE AMERICAS, WEST AFRICA, AND
EUROPE – 3 Worlds Meet Chapter 1
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Ancient Cultures arrived
about 22,000 years ago via
a land bridge
Earliest settlers were
hunters
Agriculture thrived starting
about 5,000 years ago
Some Natives remained
Nomadic
Maya, Aztec, and Inca
societies flourished
NATIVE AMERICAS IN 1400S
► Native
American
societies in North
America were as varied
as the geography
► Most of the tribes in
America had common
religious views, trade
patterns & values
WEST AFRICAN SOCIETIES OF THE
1400S
►
►
►
►
Long established,
sophisticated societies
existed in Western Africa
The Kingdom of Songhai
controlled trans-Sahara
trade
Kingdom of Benin and
Congo were two famous
dynasties
Village and family bonds
formed the basis of life
EUROPEAN SOCIETIES OF THE
1400S
► European
villages had
a long tradition of
social hierarchy –
complete with nobles,
merchants & peasants
► Christianity played a
critical role – religious
leaders had power
► The Reformation in the
early 1500s led to a
split in the church
Martin Luther
EUROPEAN EXPLORATION
► The
countries of
Portugal, Spain, France
and England explored
in the late 1400s for
God, Gold, and Glory
► Improved mapmaking,
better sailboats,
compasses, astrolabes,
Prince Henry– all led to
better exploration
SPANISH NORTH AMERICA –
Chapter 2
Columbus crosses the
Atlantic in October of 1492
and lands in San Salvador
(“Holy Savior”)
► He spent about 3 months
exploring Islands in the
Bahamas
► Europeans used advanced
weapons to force locals
into labor: Plantation
System
► Disease devastated Native
population
►
IMPACT OF COLUMBUS



On Africans- Before slave
trade ended in the 1800s,
10 million Africans taken
On Europeans- Biggest
voluntary migration in
world history
On Trade- Columbian
Exchange meant new
goods & products flowed
between continents
The Columbian Biological Exchange
Old World to New
World:
Diseases: Smallpox
Measles
Chicken Pox
Malaria
Yellow Fever
Influenza
The Common Cold
New World to Old World:
Syphilis
The Columbian Biological
Exchange
Animals:
Old World to New
World:
Horses
Cattle
Pigs
Sheep
Goats
Chickens
New World to Old World:
Turkeys
Llamas
Alpacas
Guinea Pigs
The Columbian Biological Exchange
Old World to New
World:
Plants:
Rice
Wheat
Barley
Oats
Coffee
Sugarcane
Bananas
Melons
Olives
Dandelions
Daisies
Clover
Ragweed
Kentucky Bluegrass
New World to Old World:
Corn (Maize)
Potatoes (White & Sweet Varieties)
Beans (Snap, Kidney, & Lima
Varieties)
Tobacco
Peanuts
Squash
Peppers
Tomatoes
Pumpkins
Pineapples
Cacao (Source of Chocolate)
Chicle (Source of Chewing Gum)
Papayas
Manioc (Tapioca)
Guavas
Avocados
SPAIN CLAIMS A NEW EMPIRE
►
►
►
►
Spanish explorers
(Conquistadors) seized
much of the Americas
Cortes conquered the
Aztecs in Mexico
Pizzaro conquered the
Incas in Peru
Exploitation of local
populations was significant
– Encomienda System
SPAIN EXPLORES SOUTHWEST AND
WESTERN AMERICA
►
►
►
►
California
Missions
Mid-1500s, Spain explored
much of what is today the
SW & West of the USA
New Mexico settled by
Spanish priest who
converted Natives
(Pueblos)
What we now call Texas
area had 30 expeditions in
16th century
What we call the state of
California was site of
numerous missions
EARLY BRITISH COLONIES –
Chapter 2 Section 2
►
►
►
►
Beginning in the early
1600s, the English
established colonies along
the eastern coast of North
America
1607: Jamestown was first
to be settled
John Smith led this group
of settlers
Colony struggled at first,
then was saved by
Tobacco crop
England has “Surplus
Population”

Virginia Joint Stock Company of London
receives charter from King James
- Gold ?
Passage to the Indies?
Wanted to get rich quick >>>>Long
Term????
Charter= “overseas settlers guaranteed
same rights as home”
Chesapeake bay
May 24, 1607 - 100 English Settle
“Jamestown”
- disease
- malnutrition
- starvation
Had to eat…
- dogs, cats, rats,mice
- one man ate his wife
By 1625 1,200 survivors of 8,000
Jamestown Virginia saved
by John Smith
 Don’t eat = don’t work 1608
 Before “in charge” of Jamestown…
 Captured by Indian Chief Powhatan
► Powhatan’s daughter Pocahontas
saves him (puts her head between the
clubs about to beat him)
► Creates Symbolism for peaceful
relations
Peaceful Relations?
► Anglo-Powhatan
War I (1610)
John Rolfe and Pocahontas marriage marks the end of Anglo-Powhatan
War I
► Anglo-Powhatan War II (1644)
 Banished Chesapeake Indians from ancestral
lands
 Separates Indian/White areas
►Origins
of reservation system
Natives Becoming Extinct?
Disease
Disorganization
Disposability
King Nicotine
 “King Nicotine” was hard on soil
 Tobacco was “labor intensive”
 To farm it you needed fresh labor
Creates the plantation system
Fresh labor; Mostly white indentured servants
working for a specific time period earning their freedom
First African slaves 1619 (about 20)
Another Notable 1st for Virginia
► Representative
Self Government was born in
Virginia in 1619
► The
Joint stockholders authorized the
settlers to summon an assembly
► Known as the Houses of Burgesses
► A momentous precedent is established
► The
16th century
Reformation caused a
split in the Christian
Church; Catholics and
Protestants
► Some extreme
Protestant reformers –
sought to cleanse their
religion and Separate
from the church and
left England
Mayflower 1620
►
►
►
►
½ not members (but looking for opportunity)
They were Separatists
Set up in Plymouth
Mayflower Compact
 Agreement to form Gov.
 Signed by who?
►
Protected by God?




►
Fur
Fish
Lumber
Bible
William Bradford- Governor 30 times!
Massachusetts Bay Colony
► Another
group arrives in 1629 but they are
► Non-Separatist Puritans
 They officially said they did not want to
Separate Church of England…only it’s impurities
► 1630’s
Great Migration
 70,000 leave England
 11,000 to Massachusetts
► John
Winthrop it’s 1st Governor
 Skills and resources
“Churched” Men
► “Visible
Saints” were able to enforce “God’s law”
► Bible Commonwealth/religion called the shots
► Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth
 Anne Hutchinson
► 14
Children/Challenges Predestination
► “Antinomianism”
 Holy life didn’t = saved and saved don’t need to obey
law of God or Man
 Banned/moved to NY/RI area and was eventually killed
by “Indians”
► Pious
John Winthrop saw “God’s Hand”
New England
New England Colonies by 1650
COLONISTS MEET RESISTANCE
► New
England Colonists
soon conflicted with
the Native Americans
over land & religion
► King Philip’s War was
fought in 1675
between the Natives
and New Englanders
ending a year later
with many dead and
the Natives retreating
Pilgrims and Indians
► Massasoit
the Chief
 Squanto, Wampanoag, 1st Thanksgiving
► King
Phillips War
 Slows English Settlement
 Massasoit’s son, Metacom, “called King Phillip”
►Formed
alliances
Population in
Colonies
SETTLING THE MIDDLE COLONIES
► Dominated
by Dutch
and Quaker settlers,
the Middle Colonies
were founded in the
mid-1600s
► William Penn led
Quakers as they
colonized Pennsylvania
and Delaware
Pennsylvania
William Penn’s Holy Experiment
► He
Was a Quaker
► Deep Conviction =they shaked
► Quakers = religious society of Friends
► Penn = Quaker Advertises Treats Indians
Well
► Non Quakers Immigrate too
 Civil and Religious Liberty
Penn’s Treaty with the
Native Americans
Other Colonies Founded
Maryland = Founded by Catholics
Lord Baltimore
Tobacco
Indentured servants
Toleration of all Christians
Death to atheist/Jews
Southern States
The Carolina’s
► Carolina
developed close economic ties to
the West Indies.
 Many Carolinian settlers were originally from the
West Indies.
 They used local Savannah Indians to enslave
other Indians [
 1707  Savannah Indians decided to migrate
to PA.
 PA promised better relations with whites.
Rice: Crop of the Carolinas
► The primary export.
► Rice was still an exotic
food in England.
 Was grown in Africa,
so planters imported
West African slaves.
 These slaves had a
genetic trait that
made them immune to
malaria.
► By
1710  black slaves were a majority in
Carolina.
Georgia: The Last Colony
► Founded
in 1733.
► Last of the 13 colonies.
► Named in honor of King George II.
► Great Founded by James Oglethorpe.
► Unhealthy Climate
► Spanish Attacks
ENGLAND’S COLONIES PROSPER
►
Throughout the 1600s and
1700s, more British Colonies
were established
►
There was a great deal of
Salutary Neglect
King
George
III
MERCANTILISM: AN
ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN
WHICH NATIONS SEEK TO
INCREASE THEIR WEALTH
BY OBTAINING GOLD &
SILVER AND WITH A
FAVORABLE BALANCE OF
TRADE
MERCANTILISM
NAVIGATION ACTS
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1651- England’s Parliament
passed a series of laws known
as the Navigation Acts
These laws restricted the
colonies shipping & trade
Ships, destinations, crews,
goods: All strictly regulated by
the English
The colonies were developing a
spirit of self-determination that
England had encouraged with
their Salutary Neglect
Therefore, they were NOT
happy with these restrictions
THE COLONIES COME OF AGE –
Chapter 3
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New England, Middle
Colonies, and the South –
all developed distinct
economies and societies
In the South, rural
Plantations with a single
cash crop were common
Small Southern farmers
(Germans, Scots-Irish) and
African slaves made up the
majority of people
Southern Plantation
Though better than early Colonists;
life was still very very hard
► In
the Chesapeake (Virginia area)
► Nasty, Malaria, Cut 10 years of life off of
newcomers
► 50% did not get to 20
► Most perished after arrival
► Almost no one knew grandparents
Virginia Tobacco
► Planted
Tobacco before corn
► Enormous production = prices down
► More labor
 Indians died
 Africans cost too much
 English became indentured
servants for a few years in
exchange for land
But what happens when land runs
out?
► The
Headright System paid for servants to
get 50 acres of land
► Companies sometimes paid people to come
to America just to get property
► Fortunes were made in real estate by
business groups that worked together to
buy large portions of land.
Bacon’s Rebellion
►
►
►
►
►
Landless Knockabouts
Land scarcer which
resulted in no land for
“freemen” in deal
Started by 29 year old
planter, Nathaniel Bacon
There were Indian attacks
on frontier settlements
Virginia’s Governor,
William Berkeley “refused
to retaliate”
►
►
►
Bacon and followers
murdered Indians,
plundered and pilfered
Bacon dies of disease
Result = plantation owners
search for less
troublesome laborers
Less Troublesome Labors=Slaves
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►
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►
Most slaves arrived after 1700 because whites in England start earning
better wages
Enterprising Americans, especially from “the sewer” rush to cash in on
the
1698 Royal African Company loss of slave monopoly without a
Monopoly what happens to the price of a slave?
West Coast of Africa
 Middle passage
 Slave vs. servant = early treated same
 Based on race
► “slave
codes”
 Crime to teach reading or writing to slaves
 Racial discrimination a norm
 Molds the American Slave system
THE MIDDLE PASSAGE
► During
the 17th century,
Africans endured a
transatlantic crossing
from Africa to the North
American Colonies
► Cruelty characterized
the months long
journey – 13% died on
route
AFRICANS MAINTAIN PARTS OF
THEIR CULTURE
Despite enslavement,
Africans coped with the
horrors of slavery via
music, dance, and
storytelling
► Slaves also resisted their
position of subservience by
faking illness, breaking
tools, or work slowdowns
► Others were more radical
and tried escape & revolt
►
Africans in America
► Deep
south = severe
► Chesapeake = less severe/ grows on its
own
► Gullah = Black slave language combining
English/African
► Goober = peanut
► Voodoo = witchcraft
► Banjo and Bongo
Southern Society
► Planters




Then farmers
Landless whites
Indentured
Black Slaves
NORTHERN COLONIES COMMERCE
THRIVES
LIBERTY BELL
►
►
►
The development of cities,
expansion of trade, and
diverse economies
gradually made the North
radically different from the
South
Philly was the 2nd largest
British port
Farming differed from the
South: smaller, more
diverse crops in North
Northern Soil not as fertile
► Families
Fertile
► 1 woman had 27 children
But Women fear birthing
Soil not as Fertile as the women
THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE
GREAT AWAKENING
►
►
►
1700s: An intellectual
movement known as the
Enlightenment began in
Europe and a religious
movement to fight it
known as the Great
Awakening started in the
Colonies
The Enlightenment
emphasized reason,
science, and observation
and led to the discovery of
natural laws
Copernicus, Galileo,
Franklin and Newton were
key figures
Original 13 or 32+
► In
actuality, Britain ruled thirty-two colonies
in North America, including Canada, the
Floridas, and various island in the
Caribbean.
The Melting Pot
► Dutch
(German)
► Scots-Irish
► French Huguenots
► Jews
► Swedes
► Welsh
► Dutch
► Africans
► Salt and pepper
Michel-Guillaume de Crevecoeur
► French
Settler
► In a famous essay he writes ? “What is an
American?”
► He knew we were different he says…
“a strange mixture of blood, which you will
find in no other country”
Colonial Social Hierarchy 1775
RELIGIOUS REVIVAL: THE GREAT
AWAKENING
►
►
►
►
A series of religious
revivals aimed at restoring
religious devotion & piety
swept through the colonies
in the mid-1700s
Jonathan Edwards was a
Puritan priest from New
England who was
instrumental in the
movement
Fire & Brimstone style of
worship; large, emotionally
charged crowds
Like the Enlightenment the
movement stressed the
importance of the
individual
When the Great Awakening Ends
► After
1750’s and up to the Revolution
► Clergy less influential
► Most people did not belong to an “established
church”
Anglican –grown out of the Church of England
Congregational Church- grown out of Puritanism
► Lawyers no longer seen as “wind bags”…
► they may have some use in the coming decades
Triangular Trade…becoming lopsided
Leave New England
with rum to Africa
Barter liquor for slaves,
sail to west Indies
Exchange survivors for
Molasses distilled into rum
Trade Imbalance
► Colonies
growing, England not
Poorly enforced
NAVIGATION ACTS
►
Back in 1651- England’s
Parliament passed a series of
laws known as the Navigation
Acts
►
These laws restricted the
colonies shipping & trade to
only England
►
Ships, destinations, crews,
goods: All strictly regulated by
the English
►
But Colonial Merchants found
that money could be made in
other places (Smuggling)
The Tavern
► The
Cradle of Democracy
► Food, drink, entertainment
► Exchanged and debated political ideas
► “Complained about their developing
situation”
France finds a foothold in Canada
► France
gets late colonial start due to
Religious conflicts
► French Huguenots Vs. Catholics
► Edict of Nantes (1598) allowed official
Huguenot toleration… France prospers
► 1608 Quebec settled by Samuel de
Champlain
► Champlain helps Huron Indians fight their
foes the Iroquois
3 Iroquois are killed…forever will
they hate the French
► White
“lightening Sticks” cause death.
► French
penetration into Ohio Valley
hampered by Iroquois who serve as allies to
the British in the prolonged struggle for the
continent
New France
► Grows
at a slow pace
► Even French peasants own land at home so
why move?
► BUT
THERE WAS ONE VALUABLE
RESOURCE
► The
Beaver
Coureurs de bois
► “Runners
of the woods”
► French fur trappers
► Voyageurs
► 2 fisted drinkers
► Free lovers
► Free spenders
French Catholic Missionaries
“The Jesuits” tried to “SAVE” the natives for
Christ and From the Fur trappers ways
They didn’t convert many…but they played a
vital role as explorers and geographers
Other Explorers
► Antoine
Cadillac
► Founded Detroit (1701)
► “the city of straits”
► Robert
de La Salle floated down the
Mississippi and claimed “Louisiana”
► To honor the Sovereign Louis XIV
A Clash Of Empires
► England
► France
► Spain
► 1688
to 1763 four
world wars for mastery
of the N. American
Continent take place
► The
first two:
 King Williams War
 Queen Anne’s War
Pitted British Colonians
Vs. French Coureurs de
bois
Neither Nations
considered America
worth committing “real”
troops
Spain allies with France
► English
Colonials fail miserably …
► Except in large tracts around the Hudson
Bay
George Washington inaugurates war
with France
► The
Ohio country was also hotly contested
The French erect forts in the area
► Virginia’s
Governor sends Washington to
survey Virginian’s claims on this 500,000
acres …French say it’s theirs
► He had 150 Virginia Militiamen
► Washington’s men fire first…start a new
war
► The French soon surround Washington’s
men in a hastily constructed “Fort
Necessity”
Global war
► George
Washington’s Mishap touches off
the
► Seven Years War
► or the French and Indian War
► It is fought in Europe, West Indies, the
Philippines, Africa, and on the Ocean
Join or Die
► In
previous clashes Americans had showed
an astonishing lack of unity
► Benjamin Franklin’s cartoon in the
Pennsylvania Gazette stressed the need for
a better joint effort amongst colonials
► A common defense
► Many agreed in spirit…but couldn’t iron out
the details
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
► Competition
in North
America led to a war
(1754-1763) between
old rivals France and
England
► The French in North
America were
tradesmen (furs) not
long-term inhabitants
► Ohio River valley was
the site of the conflict
FRENCH INDIAN WAR BY
NAT YOUNGBLOOD
General Edward Braddock
► Haughty
and Bullheaded British General steeped in
European Warfare…
► But this is not Europe …
► Opening Clashes of the French and Indian War
were bad for English Colonials
► The French and Indians took it to the Colonials
► Braddock killed
► Geo Wash his aide had two horses shot out from
under him
BRITAIN DEFEATS AN OLD ENEMY
►
►
►
►
►
WILLIAM PITT ON A
COIN
British then select William
Pitt
led by Pitt they eventually
defeated the French
Treaty of Paris ends the
war in 1763
Brits claim most of North
America including Florida
(from French ally Spain) &
Canada
Native Americans also
realized a French loss was
a Native American loss
Why the French and Indian War
Matters to US
► Bolsters
colonial self esteem
► Though they fought alongside British Military=
they saw the British as regular men, sometimes
fleeing into the wilderness instead of fighting
► Animosity
also rises between arrogant English
officers and the raw colonial amateurs
► Soldiers and statesmen shared a common
language and ideals
Pontiac’s Uprising
► Ottawa
Chief led several tribes who had been loyal
to the French in a brief but violent campaign to
drive the British from the Ohio Valley
► Catching the Brits napping thousands of colonists
die
► Whites retaliated…
► Killing Indians and moving into the Appalachians
whites settle the area
► One British commander ordered blankets infected
with smallpox to be distributed among the Indians
PROCLAMATION LINE OF 1763
►
►
To avoid further costly
conflicts with Native
Americans, the British
government prohibited
colonists from settling
west of the Appalachian
Mountains
The Proclamation
established a line along
the Appalachian that
colonists could not cross
(They did anyway)
The Proclamation of 1763
► Hastily
drawn document that the London
Government issued in order to prohibit
settlement beyond the Appalachians
► It was geared to “protect” the colonials from
another Pontiac like uprising…
► However the colonists see the land beyond
the Mountains as their birthright
► The Colonists now had a new vision in their
destiny
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