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A New Wave of Immigration

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At the turn of the 20th century
Today’s Focus
 At the end of class, you should be able to answer the
following:
 Who were the new immigrants of the late 1800s?
 What challenges did the new immigrants face in
America?
Lazarus’ “The New Colossus”
 Jewish Immigrant
 Poem written for the Statue of Liberty
 Displays the conflicting ideas experienced by the new
immigrants coming to America
 “World Wide Welcome” “Golden Door”
 “Wretched refuse of your teeming shore”
 A land of opportunity, but immigrants find a life not
very different than they had.
Old vs. New
 1800-1880
 Over 10 million people immigrated to the United States
 Northern and Western Europe
 Chinese to work on Railroads + Gold Rush
 1880-1910
 A new wave brought over 18 million newcomers to
America
 Southern and Eastern Europe (Greece, Italy, Poland,
Russia)
 New religious groups: Catholic, Eastern Orthodox,
Jewish
 By 1910, 1 in every 7 Americans were foreign born
Push and Pull Factors
 Many were pushed out of Europe for various reasons:
 Jews left Russia and Eastern Europe to escape religious
persecution
 Other left Southern Europe because of extreme poverty
and little economic opportunity
 Most were pulled to America
 In search of a better life, the ‘American dream’
 Many railroad companies & factories and mills
advertised jobs
Ellis Island
 1892- Ellis Island is opened in New York Harbor
 Those who could not afford first class passage who pass
through this station before entering the United States
 Medical examination: check for diseases
 http://www.history.com/videos/immigrants-detainedat-ellis-island#passing-the-medical-inspection-at-ellisisland
 Screening process: a series of questions to assess your
background
 http://www.history.com/videos/immigrants-detainedat-ellis-island#ellis-island-registering-as-an-americancitizen
Life in America for Immigrants
 A Home within America
 Many small communities within big cities emerged
where immigrants of similar cultures would live
together, speak their native language, and practice
religion
 However, lived in crowded tenements
 Labor
 Many took work in the hazardous factories in the big
cities
 Others took work in mines and farmland
Life in America for Immigrants
 Nativists: a group that favors the interests of native
born inhabitants of a country over immigrants
 Saw immigrants as a threat- took American jobs and
blamed them for the rise in crime
 Immigrants received low wages and often were only able
to obtain work in the low skilled jobs
 Pushed for literacy tests
 Americanization
Prejudice on the West Coast
 Angel Island- The West’s Ellis Island
 California had restrictions against Chinese holding
jobs or living in certain areas
 1882- Chinese Exclusion Act: barred Chinese
immigration for 10 years and Chinese could not
become citizens
 1906- San Francisco required Japanese students to
attend separate schools from white students
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