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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8
An Interactive Approach for
Working with Diverse Learners
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
1
Introduction


By 2010, minorities will constitute one third of
the population of the U.S.
By 2020, students of color will make up 46%
of the nation’s student population
Schools must adopt strategies that
ensure the success of culturally and
linguistically diverse (CLD) students.
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
2
Federal Legislation’s Influence

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
No Child Left Behind
Title III – English Language Acquisition,
Language Enhancement, and Academic
Achievement Act – testing based on English
Language proficiency
IDEA – Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act
 Implications for ELL’s
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
3
Classroom Diversity: A Reality in U.S.
Education

Teachers should:
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Discard preconceived notions and negative
stereotypes
Maintain the highest expectations
Welcome students as contributing
members of a group
Seek out activities that encourage students
to work cooperatively with ELL's
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
4
Pedagogical Implications for Working
with Diverse Learners

Opportunities for working with:
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Different linguistic levels - peer tutoring,
group work, group projects, cooperative learning
Different languages – visual, auditory,
kinesthetic lessons; manipulatives; MI-based
lessons
Different academic levels – heterogeneous/
homogeneous grouping, cooperative learning,
peer tutoring; different teaching methods/
approaches
TPR - stresses comprehension; does not
require student to speak until they are ready
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
5
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Multiple Intelligences
1) Logical/Mathematical:
Reasoning, analysis, problem solving,
numbers, shapes
Activities: word order, grammar
relationships, pattern games, classifying
and categorizing, sequencing info.,
computer games, cause and effect
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
6
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Multiple Intelligences
2) Visual/Spatial:
Imagination, drawing, painting,
use of color, use of diagrams,
mental picturing
Activities: graphs, diagrams,
drawing a response, video
exercises, computer slide shows,
multimedia projects, mind
mapping, graphic organizers
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
7
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Multiple Intelligences
3) Bodily/Kinesthetic:
Movement including sports, dance,
drama, expression through the body
Activities: role playing, dancing, TPR,
TPRS, hands-on learning, multimedia
games or activities, aerobic alphabet,
building a model or 3-D project
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
8
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Multiple Intelligences
4) Verbal/Linguistic:
Talking, reading, writing,
listening, memorizing sounds and
syllables
Activities: debates, storytelling,
E-pals, group discussions, wordprocessing programs, word
games
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
9
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Multiple Intelligences
5) Interpersonal/Social:
Influencing others, leadership skills,
conflict resolution, consoling others
Activities: cooperative teams, paired
activities, peer teaching, board games,
simulations, surveys and polls, group
brainstorming, situations or dialogues
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
10
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Multiple Intelligences
6) Intrapersonal/Introspective:
Solitary activity including reading,
reflection, assessing one’s own
strengths and weaknesses, thinking
out solutions on own
Activities: describe/write about
preferred way(s) to spend free time;
keep a journal on a particular topic,
engage in independent study
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
11
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Multiple Intelligences
7) Musical/Rhythmical
Distinguishing tones and speaking
accents, singing, humming, tapping a
rhythm
Activities: write jingles for a
commercial, jazz chants to remember
vocabulary/grammar/verbs, musical
cloze activities, create music for
skits/plays, use music as a stimulator,
look for tonal/rhythmic patterns in
music of target language
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
12
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Multiple Intelligences
8) Naturalist
Responding to all things natural,
problem-solving, discovery-based
projects
Activities: describe changes in local
environment, debate the issue of
homeopathic medicine vs. storebought remedies, plan a campaign
drive which focuses on saving an
endangered species
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
13
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Multiple Intelligences

Construct a classroom environment
conducive to accessible, successful
learning
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Centers
Real-life scenarios/role play
Cooperative learning groups
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
14
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Learning Styles
A learning style is a general approach a learner
uses to learn a subject (global, analytic, integrated)

 Analytic –
Global –
 concentrates on task at hand
 reads for overall ideas
 likes team competition
 analyzes problem, then
decides
 relates what is taught to
own experiences
 prefers to work alone
 likes working with others
 likes to organize assignments
 thinks “in context”
 prefers options
 can multitask
 remembers details
 reads between the lines
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
15
Learner-Centered Instruction:
Learning Styles

5 key elements of language learning styles:
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Analytical/global (detail oriented vs. holistic)
Sensory preferences (visual, auditory,
kinesthetic)
Intuitive/random and sensory/sequential
learning (organization of material presented)
Orientation to closure (tolerance of ambiguity)
Competition/cooperation
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
16
Learner-Centered Instruction

Learning Theories Overlap
 MI, learning styles, and brain-based
education all:
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Involve a reflective practitioner (teacher)
and reflective partner (student)
Are concerned with the education of the
whole person
Emphasize curricula with depth and breadth
Promote diversity and inclusiveness
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
17
Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
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Differences in culture are evident in
participation, how learning is demonstrated
and applied
Multicultural education:
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places value on what each student brings to the
classroom
curriculum that lends different perspectives
reflects cultural variation & learning styles
encourages students to learn new traditions while
preserving heritage
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
18
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
Exceptional Students (CLIDES)

Persons from a variety of
cultural/racial/ethnic backgrounds who
demonstrate:
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giftedness
physical disabilities
emotional disabilities
learning disabilities
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
19
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
Exceptional Students (CLIDES)

Teachers are likely to observe/address:
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Delayed language production/reception in L1/L2
Delayed acquisition of reading skills in L1/L2
Learning problems related to lack of instruction
L1
L2
Behavior problems due to past failures
Increased risk of dropout
Cultural identity problems
Poor self-esteem
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
20
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
Exceptional Students (CLIDES)
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Teacher strategies:
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Gifted –exploration of interests, acceleration, peer
tutoring, expanded assignments
Visual – large font texts, oral summary, copies of
notes, oral/tactile enhancements
Behavior –reduce/restrict stimuli, define & review
classroom expectations/rules, role playing
Auditory – preferential seating, visuals, pictures,
maps, diagrams, succinct or written directions
LD – concrete examples, breaking tasks into steps,
small groups, pair work
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
21
Working with Gifted Students in
Second Language Classrooms

Identifying the Talents of Diverse Students
 Giftedness may be overlooked due to:
 unfamiliarity with student culture
 testing in L2
 Different learning styles
 Possession of talents valued only in
their own culture
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
22
Working with Gifted Students in
Second Language Classrooms

Assessment Tools for Gifted Students
 Observation – teachers, parents,
classmates
 Self-Identification – biographical
inventories
 Portfolios – reveal progress, overall
achievement, learner’s creativity
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
23
Working with Gifted Students in
Second Language Classrooms

Programs for Gifted Students
 Enrichment
 Parent involvement
 Acceleration/honors program
 Mentor programs
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
24
Working with Gifted Students in
Second Language Classrooms
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Successful schools:
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Maintain a school-wide vision regarding outstanding
education for LEP students
Include LEP students in challenging, core, academic
classes taught by trained and qualified staff
Offer meaningful, in-depth learning across content
areas
Offer innovative instructional strategies emphasizing
collaboration and hand-on activities
Encourage parent/communication involvement
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
25
Heritage Language Learners
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Heritage Language Learner: someone
who has had exposure to a non-English
language outside the formal education
program
Teachers should value the language and
cultural experiences students bring to
the classroom
Marjorie Hall Haley, PhD - GMU
26
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