The Rise of Sovereignty Louis XIV: Absolutism personified r. 1643-1715 During the later Middle Ages, kings and powerful lords imposed greater order in their territories. Where these kings succeeded, strong dynastic states emerged. Where the monarchs failed, as they did in the Holy Roman Empire and Italy, no viable states evolved until the 1860’s. Medieval French kings: Established an efficient bureaucracy staffed by members of the bourgeoisie and lesser noblility Levied taxes Maintained a standing army Served as a unifying symbol during the 100 Years War Claimed Divine Right BUT: could not exercise absolute power Francis I (1515-1547) concluded an agreement with Pope Leo X (Concordant of Bologna) permitting the king of France to nominate and therefore appoint his choice of Bishops to the French church (the Gallican church. • Henry IV (1589“Paris is well worth a mass” 1610) Louis XIV:1638-1715 Reigned: 1643-1715 The Sun King - from his own chosen emblem: The Sun in Splendor In his memoirs, Louis wrote: “I chose the sun because of the unique quality of its radiance... the good it does is everywhere, endlessly creating joy.” "The State is the King and I am the King“ L'etat c'est moi Louis XIII Anne of Austria Cardinal Richelieu, PM 1624 - 1642 • First modern Prime Minister • “raison d'etat” • Broke power of the nobility • Created Intendants • Harrassed Huguenots Cardinal Mazarin, PM -1643-1661 b- Giulio Mazzarini “Suave and charming” “Ostentatious to a fault” Queen Anne, as Regent, allowed him unquestioned dominance over young Louis Le Fronde, 1648-1653 Jean-Baptiste Colbert, 1619-1667 • Favorable balance of trade • Self-sufficient empire/colonies • Govt subsidies to establish new industries • Abolished internal tariffs/raised external • Forbid exportation of foodstuffs • Built roads and canals • Expanded navy • Created “standards of excellence” of everything French Economic policy of Mercantilism The Palace of Versailles, 1662-1682 12 miles outside of Paris; took over 20 years to complete with 36,000 laborers and 6,000 horses- 1400 fountains, 1000 orange trees Louis moved in in 1684 The Hall of Mirrors, 225 ft long! Scholars today suggest that Louis' most brilliant policy was when he dismissed aristocrats as prominent advisors to him, thus reducing their political power and influence in the government Domestic policies • • • • • • Intendants Edict of Nantes Lettres de cachet The “Old Bargain” Tax Farmers Mercantilism His absolutist rule functioned well because he had: >the complicity of the aristocracy >the Church's support from the pulpit >an effective and huge military Foreign Policy-War • • • • The 1st Dutch War, 1667-1668 The 2nd Dutch War, 1672-1678 War with the League of Augsberg, 1688-1697 War of the Spanish Succession, 1702-1713 • *** For 46 of his 72 year reign France was at war – goal: secure natural boundaries (Rhine river) The impact of Louis XIV: • • • • • 20% of population died during his reign Famine and unrest were common Trade disrupted Tax system ruined Treasury bankrupt Spain • 1469 Ferdinand and Isabella – – – – Reconquista Purity of Blood Orthodoxy of Faith/Inquisition 1492! • 1516 Charles V- height of the Spanish Empire • 1556 Philip II- wars against the Muslims, Dutch and the English bankrupted Spain-squandered all the gold and silver from Spanish America Austria • The Hapsburgs- used marriage, Catholicism and foreign threats to consolidate power • Thirty Years War, Peace of Westphalia, 1618-1648 tightened Hapsburg control over eastern states of HRE and control of Bohemia and Hungary. • War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Austria emerged, along with England, as a major force in European political life Prussia • 1415- Hohenzollern family ruled Brandenburg • 1616 Inherited Prussia as a fief from Polish king; began a dream to unite two provinces… further holdings grew through marriage and inheritance • 1653 – Frederick William - deal with nobles: made serfdom permanent but lost their voice in governing. • Frederick William I: The Soldier-king: No natural boundaries emphasized defensive army • The military class (Junkers) served as the bureaucracy • Frederick the Great (1740-1786) established Prussia as a great power Holy Roman Empire • Failed to create a unified state- Emperor (a Hapsburg) was an elected office dependent on the Catholic church and the nobility • Emperors preoccupied with Italy and the Pope • Charles V fought wars against Lutherans, Turks and French as well as his own fiercely independent princes • 1555 Peace of Augsberg granted religious toleration to each ruling family, (ending any possibility for religious unity.) Russia • 1584-1613 “time of troubles” ended with the election of Mikhail Romanov as Czar • 1682-1725 Peter the Great – Copied Prussia's political arrangement guaranteeing serfdom to be permanent – Ignored advice from the aristocracy – Reformed the army in the manner of France – Built a navy- learned ship-building from the Dutch – Declared himself head of Orthodox Church – Built St. Petersburg- “window to the west” The End...any questions?