3 China in Antiquity ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Shang China The Dawn of Chinese Civilization Land and People Civilization in the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers Importance of geography Isolation Intruders The Shang Dynasty Civilization began with the Xia (Hsia) dynasty more than four thousand years ago • Founded by Yu, who introduced irrigation and drainage Shang dynasty, c. 16th century B.C.E. Shang Political Organization Predominantly agricultural society Ruled by aristocratic class of warriors Used two-horse chariots Central monarch Bureaucracy Territories governed by aristocratic bureaucracy King intermediary between heaven and earth Social Structures Clans Class differentiation Bronze casting The Zhou Dynasty (1122?-221 B.C.E.) Political Structures Political system similar to Shang dynasty Apex is the king served by a bureaucracy Ministers for rites, education, law, and public works appointed The Mandate of Heaven Economy and Society Peasants worked on their own land and the lord’s land Trade and manufacturing • Merchants and artisans considered property of the local lord • Economic growth from 6th – 3rd centuries B.C.E. • Large scale water projects Agricultural advances • Iron plows, natural fertilizer, collar harness, and leaving the land fallow • Cultivation of wet rice • Population growth • Silk production • Money economy The Hundred Schools of Ancient Philosophy Shang Di – Shang god presiding over forces of nature Yang (sun) and Yin (moon) Yi Jing (I Ching), Book of Changes Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) Focused on politics and ethics If humans act harmoniously in accordance with the universe, all affairs will prosper Dao (The Way) Analects Rule by merit Mencius (370-29 B.C.E.) Human beings are by nature good Ruler’s duty is to rule by compassion Legalism Human beings are by nature evil and follow the correct path only if coerced by harsh laws and stiff penalties Only firm action by the state can bring social order Daoism Popular Daoism Rituals and forms of behavior that were regarded as a means of achieving heavenly salvation or even a state of immortality on earth Spirits of deceased relatives Lao Tzu (Lao Zi) Dao De Jing (The Way of the Tao) Proper forms for human behavior Nature takes its course ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. China during the Period of the Warring States The Rise of the Chinese Empire: The Qin The Warring States Civil war between principalities New forms of warfare The Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.E.) Qin Shi Huangdi (Ch’in Shih Huang Ti), 246 B.C.E. Legalism adopted Highly centralized state Reforms Restriction of commercial activities Aggressive foreign affairs Beyond the Frontier: The Nomadic Peoples and the Great Wall of China Fall of the Qin Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E.-221 C.E.) Liu Bang (Liu Pang), Han Gaozu (Han Kao Tsu) Commoner of peasant origin Abandoned the Legalistic system Confucianism and the State State Confucianism: Integration of Confucianism and Legalism Political structure Civil service exams Society and Economy in the Han Empire Peasants Free peasantry, taxes, military service, forced labor Farm plots reduced to about one acre per capita Forced to sell to large landowners, thus becoming tenants Trade and manufacturing Problems for merchants Government directed trade and manufacturing Silk Road Guangzhou (Canton) Trade Routes of the Ancient World Decline and Fall of the Han Wang Mang, 9-23 C.E. Reformist, seized power Xin dynasty proclaimed in 9 C.E. Collapsed when Wang Mang killed in 23 Cao Cao (Ts’ao Ts’ao) ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. The Han Dynasty ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. The Great Wall with Tower north of Beijing ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. The Western Terminus of the Great Wall at Jiayugan Daily Life in Ancient China Cities Usually on major trade routes Centers of administration and economic functions Chang’an – nearly 40 square kilometers Family Filial piety Five relationships Women • Subservience • Confucian thought accepted dual roles of men and women • Some women were a force at court Housing Most lived in the countryside Staple food was millet in the north and rice in the south Chinese Culture Metalwork and sculpture Bronze • Clay molds produced work of clear line and rich surface decoration • Gave way to iron casting Terra-cotta army from Qin Shi Huangdi and later of the Han Language and Literature Writing • Ideographic and pictographic • Common written language Chinese Literature Music Music seen as a means of achieving political order and refining human character Music important both in court life and among common people ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Ruins of Jiaohe Discussion Questions What was the Mandate of Heaven? How did it shape the goal and priorities of Chinese government? What factors contributed to economic growth during the Zhou period? What role did the government play in promoting growth? What values are expressed in Confucianism? How were those values manifested in Chinese society? What were the most important accomplishments of the Han dynasty? What led to the dynasty’s demise?