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Chapter 10

Chapter 9
Review and Discussion
Invasions of Europe, 700–1000
More invaders Northmen: Norwegians, Swedes and Dane and Magyars.
The Early Middle Ages
• Rome Disappears
– Trade Slows
– Towns Empty
– Learning Ceases
Western Europe from 500 until 800 C.E.
• Roman law
– was replaced with laws practiced by Germanic peoples.
• Economy
– The economy was transformed as cities and urban areas declined.
– use of currency as a medium of exchange became far less
• Germanic decentralization
– created a need for local self-sufficiency.
– That need helped create the self-contained manor, with its
corresponding political, economic, and social organization.
How did Feudalism begin?
• People joined together to work
against common problems.
• Problems included:
Foreign invaders (Vikings)
lack of currency
lack of trade
food shortages.
Within the Feudal system…
• There were many
smaller feudal
• Usually they were
located around a
castle (a Keep) or
• Consisted of:
– Farmers
– Laborers
– Craftsmen
The Feudal System Classes
• As a self-sufficient state
(meaning there was little trade
with outsiders), a culture
developed within the feudal
• Four (4) main classes
Lesser Lords (vassals)
Feudal System
• Need for protection and lack of central
government created the feudal system
• Under the feudal system, every person had
obligations to a superior
• Every person had a duty to someone else.
The Lord and Lady
• Were rulers of their small feudal
state, and gave allegiance to the
• Lived in a castle, which also
served as a fortress for that
feudal state.
• Protected the serfs with their
army of knights.
• Arranged marriages, and male
heirs were desired, since the
estate went to the oldest son.
• This was not necessarily easy,
many children died before the
age of 15 due to disease or
Lesser Lords (Vassals)
• Lord divided his larger landholdings among
• In return the Vassals pledged service to the
• Agreed to provide the lord with:
– 40 days of military service each year
– Money
– Advice
• Were members of the
feudal army.
• One job: Protect the state,
and the lord and lady in
charge of it.
• They had many different
Mace (club)
Morning Star (spiked mace)
War Hammer
Battle Ax
Lances (used more often in
• Like the middle class here, serfs
were the vast majority in the
feudal states, but they were
• They were not slaves, but were
farmers who owed some of
their production to the feudal
• In return, they received
protection from the knights.
Feudal Manor
Medieval Homes
• Most medieval homes were
cold, damp, and dark.
• For security purposes, windows,
when they were present, were
very small openings with
wooden shutters that were
closed at night or in bad
• Many peasant families ate, slept,
and spent time together in very
small quarters, rarely more than
one or two rooms.
Age of Charlemagne
Charles the Great
Charlemagne: 800 CE
The Father of Europe
Charlemagne tried to
create a united Christian
Try to revived Latin
learning in his empire and
strived to create a “second
Established a central
government over Western
Europe (forerunner to the
Holy Roman Empire)
It included Northern Italy, Germany,
Belgium, and France)
Then Charlemagne Dies
• His son Louis the Pious rules until his
death and then the Empire is divided into
three parts by the Treaty of Verdun (843).
• Muslims claim the “Holy Land” and
Mediterranean islands like Corsica and
• Coronation of Otto I (Great) in 962
– Officially recognized as Holy Roman Empire
– Lasted until 1806
• Western Europe secured its borders against invaders and grew
• 1066-Vikings also settled Iceland and Normandy, from which
the Norman William the Conqueror invaded England in.
• 1076- Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV
• 1096- Christians launch first crusade
• 1215-King John signs the Magna Carta
• 1226- Louis IX becomes King of France
• 1347- Black Death breaks out in Italy
• 1429- Joan of Arc leads French armies against the English
• 1492- Spanish complete Reconquista
The Magna Carta
• Many Kings in England around the 10th - 12th centuries
were abusing their power and highly taxing their nobles.
• In 1215 King John angered his nobles so much that they
forcibly made John sign a document called the Magna
Carta (or Great Charter)
• Contained two basic ideas that would shape English govt.
– Nobles had certain rights (later this was extended to all
– Made clear that the monarch must obey the law.
Modern Liberties
Founded in the Magna Carta
Taxation only with representation
-no unusual taxes accept by agreement of people’s
Right to trial
-trial to be proven guilty by peers
Limits to royal power
English subjects had certain liberties
power was shared between the king and the people’s
representatives in the Great Council
Parliament developed into a 2 house body
– House of Lords -nobles and clergy
– House of Commons -knights and middle class
Conflicts between rulers and Emperors
• Many German emperors tried to become
more powerful than the pope.
• This cause the pope to sometimes send an
interdict- a whole community would be
excommunicated from the church.
• Many rulers gave into this pressure.
Logic vs Faith…The rivalry
• Aristotle= Use Logic to find out the Truth
• Church= Use Faith to find out the truth
• Others found a way to merge the 2 together
It is called “Scholasticism”
Byzantine Empire to 1000
How did the development of the Byzantine Empire
differ from the development of western Europe?
• The Byzantine Empire
– was the direct descendant of Roman imperial rule and tradition.
– centralized control whereas western European institutions were
• The Byzantine emperors
– exercised caesaropapism, which combined supreme secular and
religious power in one person Foreign threats
– Byzantium was directly threatened by foreign invaders, especially
the Iranian Sasanid Empire (4th to 7th century) and ultimately by
Muslim expansion.
• The Byzantine Empire shrank steadily until Constantinople
itself was captured by the Ottomans in 1453.
More Hagia Sophia
Roman Christianity
• Pope controlled Church affairs
• People accepted pope’s claim to authority
over all Christians
• Clergy prohibited from marrying
• Latin was language of the Church
Christianity in East and West: Great Schism
• 1054 – Differences between east and west
provoked a schism, or permanent split,
between the Eastern (Greek) Orthodox and
the Roman Catholic Church.
• Disagreed on
– Sacrament of communion, priest should marry,
local language, nature of god (trinity), placement
of icons
Review the Reasons for Decline
Crusades, 1096–1204
The Crusades (1096-1099)
• Muslims conquered the
Holy land. (Jerusalem)
• Pope Urban II called nobles
to action against the
Muslims: “ An accursed
race… has violently invaded
the lands of those
Christians and has
depopulated them by
pillage and fire.” After he
said this he called for a
crusade or Holy war to take
back the Holy land.
• Soon thousands of knights
were on their way to The Holy
• On their tunics and shields
they sewed crosses
• Why did so many “take up the
– Religious reasons
– Knights hoped to win
wealth and land
– adventure and to get away
from home struggles
Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204
• Pope Innocent III called for
the crusade
• Few reached the Holy Lands
most attacked Constantinople
• After 200 years of fighting,
the Holy Land was again
Muslim control!
Children’s Crusade, 1212
• 30,000 French and German
children set out to save
• Sadly, most die or are sold in
slavery by evil merchants!
Impact of the Crusades
• The Crusades failed in their chief goal- reclaiming the holy
• Both Christians and Muslims committed appalling acts in
the name of religion.
• Christians turned their fury against Jews, massacring entire
• Helped change Europe to more of a trading society.
Western Europeans wanted the silk, spices and perfumes
from the east.
• Brought the power of the pope to its greatest height.
• Encouraged a money society
• Gave serfs more power because nobles needed rent
MONEY instead of grain for pay
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