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Foundations of
Human Anatomy
and Physiology
Lesson 1.1: The Language of Anatomy and
Physiology
Lesson 1.2: Basic Physiological Processes
Lesson 1.3: How Forces Affect the Body
Lesson 1.4: Understanding Science
Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Lesson 1.1
The Language
of
Anatomy and Physiology
The Language of Anatomy and Physiology
• introducing anatomy and physiology
• describing the human body
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Introducing Anatomy and Physiology
• human anatomy
– identify the parts of the human body
– gross human anatomy
– microscopic human anatomy
• human physiology
– how the parts of the human body function
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Describing the Human Body
• anatomical position
• planes
– sagittal
– frontal
– transverse
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Common Directional Terms
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Review and Assessment
True or False?
1. The frontal plane divides the body into left and
right halves.
2. Proximal means closer to the trunk.
3. Lateral means away from the midline of the body.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Body Cavities
• dorsal (posterior) cavities
– cranial
– spinal
• ventral (anterior) cavities
–
–
–
–
thoracic
abdominopelvic
abdominal
pelvic
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Body Cavities
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
The Metric System
•
•
•
•
meter–measures length
kilogram–measures mass
second–measures time
Kelvin–measures temperature
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review and Assessment
Fill in the blanks with: diaphragm, kilogram, or
thoracic.
1. The heart is located in the _______________
cavity.
2. The _______________ separates the thoracic
and abdominal cavities.
3. The metric base unit of mass is the
_______________.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Lesson 1.2
Basic Physiological
Processes
Basic Physiological Processes
• structural and functional organization of the body
• homeostasis
• metabolism
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Structural Organization of the Body
•
•
•
•
•
•
atoms
molecules
cells
tissues
organs
organ systems
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
As a class
• You will be given either a term, a function, or a
group of parts.
• You need to find your matches.
– i.e. if you are given a term, then you need to find your
function and your body parts.
• Once you have found your matches, find a teacher
to check to make sure you are correct.
• Then take your words and put them on the board.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review and Assessment
Fill in the blanks with: cardiovascular, skeletal,
or urinary.
1. The _______________ system supports the body.
2. The _______________ system eliminates waste.
3. The _______________ system transports oxygen.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Homeostasis
• control mechanisms
maintain a steady internal
environment
– receptor
– control center
– effector
Rido/Shutterstock.com
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Homeostasis
• negative feedback
– conditions exceeding a set limit in one direction trigger a
negative reaction in the opposite direction
• positive feedback
– conditions cause a reaction to accelerate
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Homeostatic Imbalance
• organ systems have a diminished ability to keep
the body’s internal environment within the normal
ranges
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Metabolism
• anabolism
– big molecules made from smaller molecules
• catabolism
– big molecule broken into smaller molecules
• metabolic rate
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review and Assessment
True or False?
1. Negative feedback mechanisms increase
disruptive forces.
2. Homeostatic control mechanisms maintain a
steady internal environment.
3. Anabolism breaks molecules down.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Lesson 1.3
How Forces Affect
the Body
How Forces Affect the Body
• basic kinetic concepts
• forces and injury to the human body
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Basic Kinetic Concepts
• force
– push or pull
• mass and weight
• pressure
– force spread over an area
• torque
– twisting force
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Forces and Injury to the Human Body
• compression
– squeezing force
• tension
– pulling force
• shear
– tearing apart force
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Directional Force Distribution within the
Body
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Mechanical Stress
• types of stress
– compressive
– tensile
– shear
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Combined Loads
• multiple forces acting at
same time
• bending
– off-center force
• torsion
– twisting force
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
The Effects of Force Application
• acceleration
• deformation
– elastic
– plastic
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Chapter 1: Foundations of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Lesson 1.4
Understanding Science
Understanding Science
• the scientific method
• developing scientific theories
• the impact of scientific research
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Science
• creates new knowledge
– testable explanations
– testable predictions
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
The Scientific Method
•
•
•
•
Step 1: Identifying a Research Question
Step 2: Formulating One or More Hypotheses
Step 3: Planning the Organization of the Study
Step 4: Collecting the Data
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
The Scientific Method (continued)
• Step 5: Analyzing and Evaluating the Data with
Statistical Tools
• Step 6: Interpreting and Discussing the Results
• Step 7: Deriving Conclusions from the Results
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Developing Scientific Theories
• tested through the scientific method
• accurate explanation of some aspect of the natural
world
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Early Greek and Roman Anatomists
• Aristotle
– wrote On the Parts of Animals
• Galen
– compiled numerous anatomical reports
– first to assert that the brain controls muscles
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Anatomists in the Renaissance
• Leonardo da Vinci
– The Vitruvian Man
• Andreas Vesalius
– De Humani Corporis Fabrica
(On the Structure of the
Human Body)
• William Harvey
– one of the first accurate
descriptions of human
physiology
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
Review and Assessment
Fill in the blanks with: scientific theory, science,
or Galen.
1. _______________ creates new knowledge.
2. A(n) _______________ is an accurate explanation
of some aspect of the natural world.
3. The early Greek and Roman anatomists were
Aristotle and _______________.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.
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