close

Se connecter

Se connecter avec OpenID

Ch. 5Bilingual Education

IntégréTéléchargement
Ch. 5
Bilingual Education
“I speak with an accent but I don’t
think with one”-A Walk in the Clouds
Bilingual Education

https://youtu.be/Ob4gcERZfv8

70% of the world’s population speaks more than one language.

Dual language learners are fastest-growing populations in early childhood
classroom.

In most cases dual language learners have no one in their early childhood
setting that speaks their home language.

The program and teaching staff have little knowledge of how children learn a
second language and no training in how to foster he development of a second
language.

Dual language learners do not receive developmentally appropriate instruction
and as a result are less likely to succeed in school.

The ENGLISH language is a difficult to acquire https://youtu.be/kMZsDaTxaKo
Language as a Tool for Development

Language is the communication tool we use to organize and express our
thoughts, experiences, feelings, wants and needs.

Children naturally learn a language through interaction with their family,
friends, and community.

Language is important in all aspects of the development of the child.


Language is critical to social relationships-it enables the child to communicate
with the people they are surrounded by

Language is an important element of culture-it is connected to the person's sense
of identity and strengthens their connection to their culture.

Language is connected to cognitive development-language development affects
children’s ability to process information, memory and experiences. Research has
shown when a child has a strong foundation in their home language they can
acquire the second language with less resistance.

Language is political-Within each country certain languages carry more socialpolitical power and prestige. When countries were invaded and colonized, the
native people were often not allowed to use their home language. The language of
the ruling culture was established as the norm and all residents were required by
law to speak that cultures language.
https://youtu.be/6Ye-BeVyJ5M
How do Children learn Language?

Children typically pass through similar stages of language development,
regardless of which language they are learning.

Infants recognize the different voices around them.

Cooing describes the first sounds they make, which are the vowel sounds of the
language.

Next comes babbling which is a combination of consonant and vowel sounds.

Once they begin to speak their first words around 1 to 2 yrs of age, their vocabulary
grows and they begin to combine 2 or 3 words into telegraphic speech.

(“me cookie” “go bye-bye”)
Bilingual Language Development

Not all children are bilingual from birth. Many different situations lead to
bilingual language development in children

Immigration-families leave their home country and resettle in another country
Children acquire the second language from interaction with people and programs
in their new country. A family’s home language is lost by fourth generation.

Migration-Families temporarily leave their home country with plans to return to
their country of origin. They maintain their home language.

Close contact-Children learn both the language of their family and the community
to achieve a broader range of communication.

Schooling-Children who attend public schools in large urban schools districts may
have an opportunity to attend a language immersion program, thus learning a
second language at school. https://youtu.be/i-TMa8ZObl4

Bilingual families-Children’s parents might speak 2 languages. The best approach
is for one-parent, one language approach.
Bilingual Children’s Language Development

Tabors, the stages of learning a second language are not following:

Speak home language-children at this stage use their home language to communicate
with others who speak their home language.


YOUR ROLE: Speak simple words and phrases in the child’s home language, invite parents to
participate in the classroom, and incorporate music, audio books and other teaching materials
in the child’s home language.
Telegraphic speech-the use of simple one and two utterances.


gestures and nonverbal language to communicate.
Nonverbal period-children at this stage stop communicating with words. They realize
that the adults and children in the classroom don’t understand them.


YOUR ROLE: Introduce the concept of different languages; help children listen, and use
YOUR ROLE: Help the child expand his or her vocabulary; label the classroom in the child’s
home language and English, introduce basic vocabulary in English and tin their home language.
Productive language-the child begins to combine the one-word utterances with simple
phases to form sentences. Grammatical mistakes will be made.

YOUR ROLE: Give children opportunities to use language; ask children to respond verbally as a
way to check for comprehension; and increase the complexity of your language with children.

Code switching- the art adjusting one’s language to the seeing, culture or community-is
a very sophisticated language that plays an important role in communicating and
maintaining one’s cultural identity. https://youtu.be/_9ivqXzmrZ0

Common misperceptions-you can learn a language at any age/slows language
development is untrue/
Bilingual Education: History & Myths


Bilingualism is the ability to speak, read, and write in more than one
language.

Bilingual education has been defined as “an educational program for language
minority students, in which instruction is provided in the children’s primary
language while the child acquires sufficient English skills to function academically.”
(Diaz Soto, 1991).

Some parents do not see the value in the public school having it as an option
Approaches to Bilingual Approach

There are different approaches to bilingual education.

Additive approaches seek to add a second language while continuing to support the
child’s home language.

Subtractive approaches seek to teach English to children who speak a language other
than English without supporting the home language, thereby replacing the home language
with English.

https://youtu.be/ZANBvuS_iDU
Approaches to Bilingual Approach

Submersion approach


Immersion approach


Initially, children are taught in their home language and receive instruction in English as a second language.
Second language learners may be integrated with native English speaking children for some subjects (PE, art or
music). Children are able o pass a test to be placed in English only classrooms. Federal government recommends
that children receive 3 years of transitional instruction but studies from the field that children actually need 5 to 7
years of instruction in their home language in order to achieve the same outcomes as native English speaking
children.
Maintenance approach


This approach pulls the children out of the mainstream classroom to attend an ESL class. This approach, also
considered both assimilationist and subtractive often results in children falling behind in other subject areas when
they miss critical class time to work on their English skills.
Transitional approach


In the U.S. it is most often used to teach English-speaking children another language. They become bilingual.
There is no danger for these children to lose their home language because they are surrounded by their language
at home, school, television, and a wider community that uses their primary language of power in the U.S.
Pullout approach


“sink or swim” approach that offers no support or additional assistance to children whose home language is other
than English. The result fro this approach is poorer cognitive functioning, social marginalization and higher
dropout rate.
This additive approach promotes the development of both the child’s home language and English skills. Children in
maintenance bilingual programs receive both content instruction and language arts instruction in their home
language as well as ESL.
Dual language approach Classes are taught in one language for part of the day and in a second language for
the other half of the day. Or 2 teachers are using English and the other uses the other language throughout
the day.
Dual Approach teaching strategies

There are at least 6 different teaching strategies used in dual language approach

Translation


Preview-review


The teacher shifts back and forth between the 2 languages throughout the day as needed
Sister classrooms


In small groups, children who don’t speak the fist language receive instruction in that language.
In another small group, children who don’t speak the second language receive instruction in the
second language.
Concurrent


One day the class is taught in the child’s home language and the next day the class is taught tn
English
Second language instruction


Each activity begins with an introduction in the child’s home language. He activity proceeds in
English and concludes in the child’s home language.
Alternating days


an adult translates everything that is said in this classroom
One class and their teacher speak English. Another class and their teacher speak another
language, such as Spanish. At specific times each day, the teachers swap classes, offering
instruction in the second language. In addition, the 2 classes play together and work on
projects together at designated times.
https://youtu.be/L9mEnbgMc5U
Second Language Learners in Early Childhood
Classrooms

Unlike public schools, child care centers, preschools and family child care homes
are not required to provide ESL or bilingual services to children and families.

In accordance to Tabors (1998), children have been enrolled in one of three types
of early childhood programs.

First language classrooms



The teachers are native speakers of the child’s first language.
Bilingual classrooms

These classrooms usually include a mix of different first languages.

In these classrooms there is a teacher who speaks child’s home language and another teacher
speaks both English and children’s home language.
English language classrooms

All interactions are in English regardless if child does not speak that language.
Serving Second Language Learners

Programs should base their practices on the assumption that bilingualism is an assets that should be fostered.

Following strategies for supporting second language learners are based on recent research and best practices from the field of
bilingual education.



Parents

Encourage parents to speak to the child in their home language & continue using their language at home

Find a way to communicate with the child’s parents. You might need a translator

Use a parent questionnaire

Discuss home language and culture at parent conferences

Set goals related to home language and learning English

Have parents network with each other

Invite parents to volunteer to your classroom
Adult-Child Communication

Communicate a positive supportive attitude. Keep your body relaxed and convey what you need.

Avoid derogatory comments, looks or jokes to embarrass the child’s home language (ex. “Hola Paco, you want a
taco!”)

Offer gentle correction ‘adjust your communication

Encourage and positively reinforce children’s attempts.

Learn how to properly pronounce a child’s name
Child-Child relationships

Help English children understand the second language learner’s speech and behavior.

Use bilingual buddies

Don’t allow English speaking children mimic, tease or ignore second language learners

Try using persona dolls or role-playing activities to address these behaviors.
Serving Second Language Learners



Daily Routine

Establish and follow a daily routine to promote a sense of security

Make a photographic wall chart of the daily routines
Classroom

Create a language-rich environment

Provide areas and opportunities for private play

Add bilingual signs and labels to the classroom. Use the same color for each language

Add tape-recorded stories from children’s home cultures and home languages

Display bilingual children’s books in the book area
Free Play

Provide play-by-play commentary during free play time

Work individually with dual language learners

Establish a buddy system
Serving Second Language Learners



Small group Time

Implement small group times

Introduce new concepts in the child’s home languages

Avoid drills and rigid teaching methods

Use levels of representation to introduce a concept , project, or unit. Begin with real
objects. Second, introduce replicas or models. Third, relate the real objects to
photographs. Lastly, introduce and relate the written word in both English and the child’s
home language to the object.
Large group time

Structure the seating arrangements at circle time, small group time or meal times to pair
English-speaking children with children who are learning English.

Modify your teaching techniques. Minimize lecturing. Use books, objects and a lot of
repetition

Sing the same songs & incorporate finger plays

Incorporate the children’s home languages into common circle time activities (counting)
Curriculum

Relate new information to children’s life experiences and what they already know. Choose
curriculum themes and materials that relate to their lives and cultures.
Serving Second Language Learners

Assessment

Incorporate home language into your observation and assessment.

Assess children’s English abilities, abilities in their home languages, and their
cultural communication patterns

Examine all elements of a child’s communication.
Assess children’s bilingual development by asking these questions:

Language development-to what extent has the child maintained or lost the
home language? To what extent has the child acquired or maintained second
language?

Language acquisition-Were the languages acquired at the same time or was
one acquired after the other?

Language competence-How proficient is the child the home language? How
proficient is the child in the second language?

Language use-when, in what contexts, and with whom does the child use the
home language? Second language?
Assess children’s bilingual development by
asking these questions:

Linguistics-does the child code switch? Does the child mix words or phrases from
one language when speaking another language? Does the child use the accent
or grammar of one language when speaking another language? Does the child
follow the spelling rules of one language when writing words in another
language?

Attitude-what is the child’s attitude towards the home language? What is the
child’s attitude toward learning English?

Pressure-What pressure does the child put on herself to use the home language?
What pressure does the child put on herself to use the second language?

Circumstances-what are the circumstances surrounding the child’s use of 2
languages?

Culture-to what extent is the child familiar with the home culture? To what extent
is the child familiar with European American culture?
What do I need to do to work Effectively with
other Cultures?

Hire or request a bilingual co-teacher or assitatn teacher.

Collobrate with the ESL teachers if you are in a public school.

Learn simple words in the child’s home language.
Conclusion

Language learning is interwoven with social, cognitive and language
development.

Second language learning is integrally connected to the child’s home culture
and future academic success.

A culturally responsive and developmentally appropriate classroom will help
children become bilingual.
Auteur
Документ
Catégorie
Без категории
Affichages
9
Taille du fichier
391 Кб
Étiquettes
1/--Pages
signaler