Ch. 5 Bilingual Education “I speak with an accent but I don’t think with one”-A Walk in the Clouds Bilingual Education https://youtu.be/Ob4gcERZfv8 70% of the world’s population speaks more than one language. Dual language learners are fastest-growing populations in early childhood classroom. In most cases dual language learners have no one in their early childhood setting that speaks their home language. The program and teaching staff have little knowledge of how children learn a second language and no training in how to foster he development of a second language. Dual language learners do not receive developmentally appropriate instruction and as a result are less likely to succeed in school. The ENGLISH language is a difficult to acquire https://youtu.be/kMZsDaTxaKo Language as a Tool for Development Language is the communication tool we use to organize and express our thoughts, experiences, feelings, wants and needs. Children naturally learn a language through interaction with their family, friends, and community. Language is important in all aspects of the development of the child. Language is critical to social relationships-it enables the child to communicate with the people they are surrounded by Language is an important element of culture-it is connected to the person's sense of identity and strengthens their connection to their culture. Language is connected to cognitive development-language development affects children’s ability to process information, memory and experiences. Research has shown when a child has a strong foundation in their home language they can acquire the second language with less resistance. Language is political-Within each country certain languages carry more socialpolitical power and prestige. When countries were invaded and colonized, the native people were often not allowed to use their home language. The language of the ruling culture was established as the norm and all residents were required by law to speak that cultures language. https://youtu.be/6Ye-BeVyJ5M How do Children learn Language? Children typically pass through similar stages of language development, regardless of which language they are learning. Infants recognize the different voices around them. Cooing describes the first sounds they make, which are the vowel sounds of the language. Next comes babbling which is a combination of consonant and vowel sounds. Once they begin to speak their first words around 1 to 2 yrs of age, their vocabulary grows and they begin to combine 2 or 3 words into telegraphic speech. (“me cookie” “go bye-bye”) Bilingual Language Development Not all children are bilingual from birth. Many different situations lead to bilingual language development in children Immigration-families leave their home country and resettle in another country Children acquire the second language from interaction with people and programs in their new country. A family’s home language is lost by fourth generation. Migration-Families temporarily leave their home country with plans to return to their country of origin. They maintain their home language. Close contact-Children learn both the language of their family and the community to achieve a broader range of communication. Schooling-Children who attend public schools in large urban schools districts may have an opportunity to attend a language immersion program, thus learning a second language at school. https://youtu.be/i-TMa8ZObl4 Bilingual families-Children’s parents might speak 2 languages. The best approach is for one-parent, one language approach. Bilingual Children’s Language Development Tabors, the stages of learning a second language are not following: Speak home language-children at this stage use their home language to communicate with others who speak their home language. YOUR ROLE: Speak simple words and phrases in the child’s home language, invite parents to participate in the classroom, and incorporate music, audio books and other teaching materials in the child’s home language. Telegraphic speech-the use of simple one and two utterances. gestures and nonverbal language to communicate. Nonverbal period-children at this stage stop communicating with words. They realize that the adults and children in the classroom don’t understand them. YOUR ROLE: Introduce the concept of different languages; help children listen, and use YOUR ROLE: Help the child expand his or her vocabulary; label the classroom in the child’s home language and English, introduce basic vocabulary in English and tin their home language. Productive language-the child begins to combine the one-word utterances with simple phases to form sentences. Grammatical mistakes will be made. YOUR ROLE: Give children opportunities to use language; ask children to respond verbally as a way to check for comprehension; and increase the complexity of your language with children. Code switching- the art adjusting one’s language to the seeing, culture or community-is a very sophisticated language that plays an important role in communicating and maintaining one’s cultural identity. https://youtu.be/_9ivqXzmrZ0 Common misperceptions-you can learn a language at any age/slows language development is untrue/ Bilingual Education: History & Myths Bilingualism is the ability to speak, read, and write in more than one language. Bilingual education has been defined as “an educational program for language minority students, in which instruction is provided in the children’s primary language while the child acquires sufficient English skills to function academically.” (Diaz Soto, 1991). Some parents do not see the value in the public school having it as an option Approaches to Bilingual Approach There are different approaches to bilingual education. Additive approaches seek to add a second language while continuing to support the child’s home language. Subtractive approaches seek to teach English to children who speak a language other than English without supporting the home language, thereby replacing the home language with English. https://youtu.be/ZANBvuS_iDU Approaches to Bilingual Approach Submersion approach Immersion approach Initially, children are taught in their home language and receive instruction in English as a second language. Second language learners may be integrated with native English speaking children for some subjects (PE, art or music). Children are able o pass a test to be placed in English only classrooms. Federal government recommends that children receive 3 years of transitional instruction but studies from the field that children actually need 5 to 7 years of instruction in their home language in order to achieve the same outcomes as native English speaking children. Maintenance approach This approach pulls the children out of the mainstream classroom to attend an ESL class. This approach, also considered both assimilationist and subtractive often results in children falling behind in other subject areas when they miss critical class time to work on their English skills. Transitional approach In the U.S. it is most often used to teach English-speaking children another language. They become bilingual. There is no danger for these children to lose their home language because they are surrounded by their language at home, school, television, and a wider community that uses their primary language of power in the U.S. Pullout approach “sink or swim” approach that offers no support or additional assistance to children whose home language is other than English. The result fro this approach is poorer cognitive functioning, social marginalization and higher dropout rate. This additive approach promotes the development of both the child’s home language and English skills. Children in maintenance bilingual programs receive both content instruction and language arts instruction in their home language as well as ESL. Dual language approach Classes are taught in one language for part of the day and in a second language for the other half of the day. Or 2 teachers are using English and the other uses the other language throughout the day. Dual Approach teaching strategies There are at least 6 different teaching strategies used in dual language approach Translation Preview-review The teacher shifts back and forth between the 2 languages throughout the day as needed Sister classrooms In small groups, children who don’t speak the fist language receive instruction in that language. In another small group, children who don’t speak the second language receive instruction in the second language. Concurrent One day the class is taught in the child’s home language and the next day the class is taught tn English Second language instruction Each activity begins with an introduction in the child’s home language. He activity proceeds in English and concludes in the child’s home language. Alternating days an adult translates everything that is said in this classroom One class and their teacher speak English. Another class and their teacher speak another language, such as Spanish. At specific times each day, the teachers swap classes, offering instruction in the second language. In addition, the 2 classes play together and work on projects together at designated times. https://youtu.be/L9mEnbgMc5U Second Language Learners in Early Childhood Classrooms Unlike public schools, child care centers, preschools and family child care homes are not required to provide ESL or bilingual services to children and families. In accordance to Tabors (1998), children have been enrolled in one of three types of early childhood programs. First language classrooms The teachers are native speakers of the child’s first language. Bilingual classrooms These classrooms usually include a mix of different first languages. In these classrooms there is a teacher who speaks child’s home language and another teacher speaks both English and children’s home language. English language classrooms All interactions are in English regardless if child does not speak that language. Serving Second Language Learners Programs should base their practices on the assumption that bilingualism is an assets that should be fostered. Following strategies for supporting second language learners are based on recent research and best practices from the field of bilingual education. Parents Encourage parents to speak to the child in their home language & continue using their language at home Find a way to communicate with the child’s parents. You might need a translator Use a parent questionnaire Discuss home language and culture at parent conferences Set goals related to home language and learning English Have parents network with each other Invite parents to volunteer to your classroom Adult-Child Communication Communicate a positive supportive attitude. Keep your body relaxed and convey what you need. Avoid derogatory comments, looks or jokes to embarrass the child’s home language (ex. “Hola Paco, you want a taco!”) Offer gentle correction ‘adjust your communication Encourage and positively reinforce children’s attempts. Learn how to properly pronounce a child’s name Child-Child relationships Help English children understand the second language learner’s speech and behavior. Use bilingual buddies Don’t allow English speaking children mimic, tease or ignore second language learners Try using persona dolls or role-playing activities to address these behaviors. Serving Second Language Learners Daily Routine Establish and follow a daily routine to promote a sense of security Make a photographic wall chart of the daily routines Classroom Create a language-rich environment Provide areas and opportunities for private play Add bilingual signs and labels to the classroom. Use the same color for each language Add tape-recorded stories from children’s home cultures and home languages Display bilingual children’s books in the book area Free Play Provide play-by-play commentary during free play time Work individually with dual language learners Establish a buddy system Serving Second Language Learners Small group Time Implement small group times Introduce new concepts in the child’s home languages Avoid drills and rigid teaching methods Use levels of representation to introduce a concept , project, or unit. Begin with real objects. Second, introduce replicas or models. Third, relate the real objects to photographs. Lastly, introduce and relate the written word in both English and the child’s home language to the object. Large group time Structure the seating arrangements at circle time, small group time or meal times to pair English-speaking children with children who are learning English. Modify your teaching techniques. Minimize lecturing. Use books, objects and a lot of repetition Sing the same songs & incorporate finger plays Incorporate the children’s home languages into common circle time activities (counting) Curriculum Relate new information to children’s life experiences and what they already know. Choose curriculum themes and materials that relate to their lives and cultures. Serving Second Language Learners Assessment Incorporate home language into your observation and assessment. Assess children’s English abilities, abilities in their home languages, and their cultural communication patterns Examine all elements of a child’s communication. Assess children’s bilingual development by asking these questions: Language development-to what extent has the child maintained or lost the home language? To what extent has the child acquired or maintained second language? Language acquisition-Were the languages acquired at the same time or was one acquired after the other? Language competence-How proficient is the child the home language? How proficient is the child in the second language? Language use-when, in what contexts, and with whom does the child use the home language? Second language? Assess children’s bilingual development by asking these questions: Linguistics-does the child code switch? Does the child mix words or phrases from one language when speaking another language? Does the child use the accent or grammar of one language when speaking another language? Does the child follow the spelling rules of one language when writing words in another language? Attitude-what is the child’s attitude towards the home language? What is the child’s attitude toward learning English? Pressure-What pressure does the child put on herself to use the home language? What pressure does the child put on herself to use the second language? Circumstances-what are the circumstances surrounding the child’s use of 2 languages? Culture-to what extent is the child familiar with the home culture? To what extent is the child familiar with European American culture? What do I need to do to work Effectively with other Cultures? Hire or request a bilingual co-teacher or assitatn teacher. Collobrate with the ESL teachers if you are in a public school. Learn simple words in the child’s home language. Conclusion Language learning is interwoven with social, cognitive and language development. Second language learning is integrally connected to the child’s home culture and future academic success. A culturally responsive and developmentally appropriate classroom will help children become bilingual.