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Chapter 5

Chapter 4
Section 5
Alexander the Great
Hellenistic Period
Phillip II
359 B.C. Phillip II becomes king of
Admired Greek Culture
Defeated the Greek city-states
Unification of Greece 338 B.C.
Phillip II is assassinated at his
daughters wedding in 336 B.C.
Alexander the Great
• 20 years old at the death of his father and
becomes King of Macedonia and Greece
• Alexander invades Asia / Persia 334 B.C.
• Invasion lasts for 8 years and covers 20,000
– 37,000 men and as many support people
• His empire now stretched from Greece to
• Built the City of Alexandria as the Greek
capital of Egypt
End of the Empire
Death at Early Age
Power Struggle
• Alexander’s empire largest
world had ever seen
• Generals fought each other for
• Did not rule very long
• In the end, the empire was
divided among three most
powerful generals
• 323 BC, Alexander fell ill while
in Babylon
• Died a few days later at age 33
• Alexander died without naming
• Called themselves kings
– Antigonus became king of
Macedonia and Greece
– Seleucus ruled Persian
– Ptolemy ruled Egypt
Defeated - the Persian Darius II
Controlled all of the Persian Empire
Hellenistic Period
• Alexander’s legacy – Alexander and his
successors spread Greek language, art, literature,
and architecture throughout Western Asia and
North Africa
• Considerable increase in the knowledge of art,
philosophy, math and the sciences
• Alexandria became the center of knowledge and a
had large library of 500,000 scrolls
• Athens remained the center of Greek theatre
Hellenism - Hellenistic
• Advances in Science
– Euclid wrote the “Elements” a text on
plane geometry
– Archimedes worked on the geometry of
spheres and cylinders and developed the
constant “pi”
• also devised the
Archimedes screw
Achievements and Beliefs
• Astronomy/Geography
Eratosthenes – astronomer theorized the earth was
round and calculated the circumference to be
24,675 miles (within 185 miles of the actual)
• Mathematics/Physics
– Value of Pi, steam engine, levers
• Art of Sculptures
– Colossus of Rhodes
Colossus of Rhodes
One of the Seven Wonders of
the World
On the island of Rhodes
What is Stoicism
What did they believe?
• A school of thought (philosophy) developed by
the teacher Zeno in Hellenistic Athens.
• It says that happiness can be achieved only when
people gain inner peace by living in harmony with
the will of God
• That people should bear whatever life offers
• The real “stoic” is a perfect citizen
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