Se connecter

Se connecter avec OpenID

Chapter 27

Chapter 27
The Age of
Section 1
“The Scramble for Africa”
Ignoring the claims of ethnic African
groups, kingdoms, and city-states,
Europeans establish colonies
Why Europeans were not
interested in Africa until 19th c.
• Europeans considered Africa
Dark Continent.
• So many geographical
barriers e.g. thick forests.
• Tropical diseases such as
• Transportation difficulties
e.g. couldn’t use horses due
to Tse Tse flies.
• Scientific discoveries made
it easy to live in Africa (see
• Explorations also made
Africa known to the world
• This led to the scramble for
Cinchona tree. Scientists
discovered quinine, the cure for
Malaria from this tree.
Africa Before European Domination
• Problems Discourage Exploration
– Armies, rivers, and disease
• Nations Compete for Overseas
– Imperialism-seizure of a country or
territory by a stronger country
– Missionaries, explorers,
humanitarians reach interior of Africa
Dark Continent Revealed
• Adventurous explorers & geographic
societies sought to uncover the
mysteries of inner Africa,
– esp. the course of the main
– curious about what mineral
wealth may lie inside Africa
• David Livingstone (Scot) doctor,
– explored southern and central
– Zambezi R…Victoria Falls…Congo
• David Stanley (Am) journalist went
in search of Livingstone when lost
– explored Nile, Congo
– claimed Congo for Belgium (King
Leopold II)
David Livingstone
Henry Stanley
European Explorations in mid-19c:
“The Scramble for Africa”
“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
• The Congo Sparks
– Henry Stanley helps
King Leopold II of
Belgium acquire land
in Congo
– Leopold brutally
exploits Africans;
millions die
– Belgian government
takes colony away
from Leopold
– Much of England
begins to claim parts
of Africa
Mutilated People in the Congo
Free State
King Leopold II, Belgium & the Congo
• Stanley used a combination of
promises, threats and trickery
when meeting a new chief,
– attached a buzzer to his
hand which was linked to a
– When the chief shook
hands with Stanley he got
a mild electric shock. This
device convinced the chiefs
that Stanley had
superhuman powers.
– The agreements allowed
the Belgians into the
Congo to take its rich
natural resources.
Forces Driving Imperialism
• Belief in European Superiority
– Race for colonies grows out of
national pride
– Racism-belief that one nation is
better than others
– Social Darwinism-natural selection
applied to human society
• Factors Promoting Imperialism in
– Technological inventions like steam
engine, Maxim gun help conquest
– Within Africa, Africans are divided by
culture and language
The Division of Africa
• Lure of Wealth
– Discovery of
gold and
interest in
Berlin Conference & the
Scramble for Africa
• 1884-1885
• Called by Otto von
• Br, Fr, Ger, It, Bel,
Port meet (Africa
• Western powers lay
the rules for dividing
up Africa
• Ignored traditional
tribal boundaries
…would create
problems later
• Berlin Conference Divides Africa
– Fourteen nations agree on rules for
• Countries must claim land and prove
ability to control it
– By 1914, only Ethiopia and Liberia
are free of European control
Berlin Conference of 1884-1885
Another point of view? 
• Demand for Raw Materials Shapes
– Raw materials are greatest source of
wealth in Africa
– Businesses develop cash-crop
• Peanuts
• Palm oil
• Cocoa
• rubber
Harvesting Rubber
Three Groups Clash over South
• Shaka-Zulu chiefcreates centralized
state around 1816
• British defeat Zulus
and gain control of
Zulu nation in 1887
Shaka Zulu
(1785 – 1828)
Zulu War, 1879
• Boers and British Settle in the Cape
– The first Europeans to settle South Africa
were the Dutch. They later became known as
the Boers (also called Afrikaners).
– British control of South Africa caused a clash
between the Boers and British.
– Boers move north on the Great Trek, but
clash with Zulus
The Boer Wars
• After the discovery of
diamonds and gold in
South Africa, the Boers
tried to keep outsiders
coming into South Africa
from gaining political
• The First Boer War was
briefly fought in 1880-81
and successfully kept
the British from annexing
Boer territory called
Transvaal (in orange).
The Great Trek, 1836-38
Diamond Mines
Raw Diamonds
• The Boer War
– Between the Boers and the British
– Begins in 1899
– British win
– Boer republics united in Union of South Africa
A Future British Prime Minister
British Boer War Correspondent,
Winston Churchill
Scramble for Africa
• Consequences
– Traditional way of life disrupted
• Pastoral and warrior traditions
• Grazing lands depleted
• Most Africans were little affected until Christianity went against
traditions  Islam gains grounds
– Economic exploitation of Africans
• Africans saw Europeans as rivals for profits
• Resistance movements failed
– European racism imported into Africa
– Spread of European culture
• Christian mission school educate African children
– Spread of Western technology
• Guns change warfare (violence increases, greater devastation)
– Rise of African Nationalism
Без категории
Taille du fichier
4 911 Кб