Revision A Christmas Carol Themes Poverty and Suffering Themes Poverty and Suffering Memory and Nostalgia Themes Poverty and Suffering Memory and Nostalgia Festivity Themes Poverty and Suffering Memory and Nostalgia Festivity Family Themes Poverty and Suffering Memory and Nostalgia Festivity Family Social Responsibility Characters Ghost of Christmas Past Scrooge Ghost of Christmas Past Fan Ghost of Christmas Past Fred Want and Ignorance Fred’s Wife Old Fezziwig Jacob Marley Bob Cratchit Tiny TIm Motifs What is a motif? Motifs Food Light and Shadow Time Music Christmas Techniques What literary techniques are used by Charles Dickens in order to Engage the audience? Communicate themes? Techniques Use of suspense to involve reader Pathos to create sympathy Use of dramatic irony Use of allegory Analepis/prolepis Comedy Sentimentality Language The working class characters speak in a Cockney dialect, which makes them sound natural, warm and likeable. Dickens creates atmosphere by using detailed descriptions Scrooge’s dialogue is revealing of character Often uses depictions of Christmas across the nation The Role of the Spirits What do they do? How do they do it? The Role of the Spirits Can unsettle the reader Warns Scrooge what he could become Identified with Christmas Exist beyond time Associated with the past Confront Scrooge What are the major factors in Scrooge’s development? Fixated with material goods Selfish, lonely man Damaged childhood Unaware of full consequences of his actions Moved by joy of Christmas Inspired by Bob’s generosity of spirit Misses out on shared experience Final warning of death Contextual Factors Written in 1843 Dickens campaigned against workhouses and for charity Sold over 15,000 copies in first year of publication Often credited with reigniting interest in Christmas Victorians interested in idea of ghosts and supernatural Class divide Now you try… To what extent do you regard A Christmas Carol as a tale of redemption? Discuss Dickens’ portrayal of poverty in A Christmas Carol. How important is the motif of Christmas to A Christmas Carol? Can you think of any other questions?