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Chapter 2, Exercise set 2

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Chapter 2, Exercise Sets
More standardization and
diagramming
Chapter 2, Exercise 1
2. This passage does not contain an argument.
It begins with a comment that everyone
knows the U.S. is having an election (in 2008);
the author proceeds to state three things that
he thinks Europe should focus on. He does
not offer reasons for his statement that these
three things are jobs, Muslims, and neighbors.
4. This passage does contain an argument.
The conclusion is in the last sentence and is
indicated by the word “therefore.” The other
three sentences are premises
6. This passage does not contain an argument.
It amounts to an expression of thanks publicly
stated by the Spirit of Sport Foundation.
7.
The passage contains both an argument and a subargument.
(1) The butler was passionately in love with the victim.
Thus,
(2) It was not the butler who committed the murder.
(3) Either the butler committed the murder or the judge committed
the murder.
Therefore,
(4)The judge committed the murder.
The subargument goes from (1) to (2), and the main argument
goes from (2) and (3) to (4).
(1)
(2) + (3)
(4)
12. This passage contains a linear argument
from (1) to (2).
(1) We are not under an obligation to give aid
unless it is likely to be effective in reducing
starvation or malnutrition.
Therefore,
(2) We are not under an obligation to give aid to
countries that make no effort to reduce the rate
of population growth that will lead to
catastrophe.
16. This passage contains an argument.
Standardization:
(1) No one who uses a relatively unreliable procedure
in order to decide whether to punish can know
whether that other person deserves punishment.
(2) No one who cannot know whether another person
deserves punishment has a right to punish that person.
Therefore,
(3) No one who uses a relatively unreliable procedure
in order to decide whether to punish another person
has a right to punish that person.
(1)
+
(3)
(2)
17. This passage does not contain an
argument; it offers observations on the role of
observations in obtaining a good diagnosis.
Chapter 2, Exercise set 2, 3, and 4
More standardization and
diagramming
Exercise set 2
(1) There is no point in getting your first elementary
education in some other language if your native language is
English, because English is the language of world business
and world scholarship, and English is the most important
language a person can learn to speak and write fluently.
(1) English is the language of world business and world
scholarship.
(2) English is the most important language a person can learn to
speak and write fluently.
Therefore
(3) There is no point in getting your first elementary education in
some other language if your native language is English.
Linked, linear, or convergent?
Seemingly linear, if we take (1) to provide specific reasons for
accepting (2).
(1)
(2)
(3)
(3) Virtue is something that is
valued because of the kinds of
comparisons we make between
people. Therefore if all people
shared all good qualities equally,
there would be no such thing as
virtue. (Adapted from the
seventeenth century philosopher
Thomas Hobbes)
(1) Virtue is something that is valued because of
the kinds of comparisons we make between
people.
Therefore,
(2) If all people shared good qualities equally,
there would be no such thing as virtue.
There is one premise and one conclusion. The
support pattern is, by default, linear.
5. There must be electrons
because scientific theories and
calculations based on the
hypothesis that they exist explain
many things that happen in our
world.
(1) Scientific theories and calculations based on the
hypothesis that electrons exist explain many things that
happen in our world.
Therefore
(2) Electrons must exist.
Since there is one premise and one conclusion, the
support pattern is, by default, linear.
6. Language is necessary for communication, and
communication is necessary for the advancement of our
civilization. Therefore, language is necessary for the
advancement of our civilization. And we can go on from this
point. Because language is necessary for human
advancement, any attempt to censor language will restrict
that advancement. Therefore the censorship of written
materials is always wrong.
(1) Language is necessary for communication.
(2) Communication is necessary for the advancement of our
civilization.
Therefore
(3) Language is necessary for the advancement of our civilization.
(4) Any attempt to censor language will restrict the advancement
of our civilization.
Therefore,
(5) The censorship of written materials is always wrong.
Covergent, linked, linear?
Linear, if we take (3) to give us grounds for (4).
(1)
+
(3)
(4)
(5)
(2)
8. How could there be life without
change? Stagnation is death.
(1) Stagnation is death.
Therefore,
(2) There can be no life without change.
9. Descartes influenced Pascal
and Pascal influenced Sartre.
Therefore, Descartes influenced
Sartre.
(1) + (2)
(3)
This seems to be clearly linked, since (3) makes mention of
concepts only connected by (1) and (2) together
.
EXERCISE 3
Assume that each of the following passages states an
argument in which the final sentence contains the
conclusion. (Note: The final sentence may also contain a
supporting premise, but at the very least, it will contain the
conclusion.) In each case, determine the premises of the
argument. Are there any unstated premises? If so, what are
they?
1. If the global climate is getting
warmer, then winters on the
Canadian prairie should be less
severe. And they're pretty mild.
What can we conclude from
that?
The invited conclusion is that (3) the
global climate is getting warmer. The
premises are (1) if the global climate
is getting warmer winters on the
Canadian prairie should be less
severe and (2) winters on the
Canadian prairie are (by implication)
less severe.
(1)
+
(3)
(2)
4. Mad cow disease spreads
because of a certain form of
protein that is not destroyed by
disinfecting efforts, even at very
high temperatures. Because we
can't control the way it spreads,
the disease is very serious.
The main conclusion is that mad cow disease
is very serious. A premise is (1) mad cow
disease spreads because of a certain form of
protein that is not destroyed by disinfecting
efforts, and this premise establishes a
subconclusion, (2) that we cannot control the
way mad cow disease spreads. The argument
is (1) therefore (2) therefore (3), in a linear
support pattern.
(1)
(2)
(3)
7. Young people are often bored.
They do crazy, sometimes
criminal, things out of boredom.
So the way to cut the crime rate
among youth is to give them
some meaningful activities to do.
The conclusion is (3) the way to cut the
crime rate among youth is to give them
some meaningful activities to do. The
premises are (1) Young people do crazy,
sometimes criminal, things out of
boredom.
The missing premise is (2) if young
people are given meaningful activities to
do, they will not be bored.
(1) + (3)
(2)
9. Photographs can be altered and the
techniques for doing so are increasingly
sophisticated, due to the use of computers.
You can see a man and his children in a
picture, with no wife beside him, and yet in
the original picture his wife (whom he has
now divorced) was there. He had her
eliminated with sophisticated alteration
techniques. You can see from this that
photographs are not a reliable guide to what
reality was like in the past.
The conclusion is that (3) photographs are
not a reliable guide to what reality was like in
the past. The second and third sentences are
best understood as illustrative material. But
The illustrative material could be understood
as providing a sub-argument for (1) here. The
premises are (1) Photographs can be (easily)
altered and (2) The techniques for altering
photographs are increasingly sophisticated
due to the use of computers.
(2)
(1)
(3)
EXERCISE 4
In each of the following passages, state
whether an argument is given. If so, identify
the conclusion. Do you think any of these
passages should be interpreted as expressing
an argument with an unstated conclusion? If
so, which ones? What is the unstated
conclusion, and what are your reasons for
reading it into the passage?
Show her you care by giving
jewelry. These glorious jewels
have delighted beautiful women
for more than a century. What
could be better for the woman
you love?
There is an unstated conclusion to
the effect that you should give the
woman you love glorious jewels. The
premise is that glorious jewels like
these have delighted beautiful
women for more than a century.
(Clearly, this passage copies the style
of an advertisement.)
6. Background: The following passage is
taken from Alfie Kohn, No Contest: The Case
Against Competition (Boston: Houghton
Mifflin, 1992), p. 51. (Punctuation has been
altered slightly.)
Since group performance in problem solving
is superior to even the individual work of the
most expert group members, it should not be
surprising that students learn better when
they cooperate.
There is an argument. The premise is that
group performance in problem solving is
superior to even the individual work of the
most expert group members. The conclusion
is that students learn better when they
cooperate. There is no unstated conclusion.
9. Background: The following passage is the text of an advertisement that
appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in May 1999, posted by the Nuclear Energy
Institute, based in Washington, D.C. The text is accompanied by two photographs.
The first shows a plant, or factory, with blue sky and clouds above it and the
words Fresh Air written against the sky. The second shows ripe red tomatoes
glossy with drops of moisture and has "Fresh Food" written in it.
Nuclear makes it happen. Chances are you know nuclear power generates about
20 percent of America's electricity without emitting greenhouse gases, but
nuclear technology contributes to our lives in countless other ways. Through food
irradiation, for example, harmful microbes such as E. coli can be virtually
eliminated in meats, fruits, and vegetables. That means more peace of mind at
the dinner table. From medical miracles to space exploration, nuclear technology
enhances our lives in many ways. It's the same technology that enables more
than 100 nuclear power plants to produce valuable electricity and keep our air
clean. That's one reason why the majority of Americans believe nuclear powerone of our cleanest sources of electricity-should continue to play an important
role in our energy future. NUCLEAR. SO MUCH MORE THAN YOU EVER IMAGINED.
The visual materials are described because they
help to understand what the advertisers are trying
to establish here. The conclusion is that (5) nuclear
processes are safe and should continue to play an
important role in the future of American energy. The
stated premises are (1) that nuclear power does not
emit greenhouse cases; (2) that irradiation of foods
eliminates harmful microbes; (3) that nuclear
technology helps in various activities ranging from
medicine to space exploration. The claim that
nuclear power plants help keep the air clean can be
plausibly viewed as a repetition of (1). All these
points are stated, not implicit. The visual material is
intended to convey an association between nuclear
power and natural health.
(1) Nuclear power does not emit greenhouse cases.
(2) that irradiation of foods eliminates harmful microbes.
(3) that nuclear technology helps in various activities
ranging from medicine to space exploration.
Therefore,
(4) Nuclear processes are safe and should continue to play
an important role in the future of American energy.
(1) (2) (3)
(5)
10. Not all discrimination is
wrong. For example, if a golf
competition wants to restrict
admission to players with less
than a certain handicap level, it's
quite all right to do that.
The conclusion is the first
sentence. The premise is the
second sentence. The missing
premise is that restricting
admission to a golf competition
is an example of discrimination.
(3) restricting admission to a golf
competition is an example of
discrimination.
(1) + (3)
(2)
11. Women's ski jumping was not
accepted as an event in 2008
Olympics. But what's gone wrong
here? This sport has been
recognized for a long time. There are
competitions in many different
countries. And there are some
pretty expert women jumpers who
are thrilling to watch.
The conclusion is (4) women’s ski jumping
should be accepted as an event in the
Olympics. This conclusion is not quite stated
explicitly; it can be drawn from the rhetorical
question in the second sentence, and from
the first sentence. There are three premises
and these are offered in a convergent support
pattern. (1) Women’s ski jumping has been
recognized for a long time. (2) There are
competitions in women’s ski jumping in many
different countries. (3) There are some pretty
expert women ski jumpers who are thrilling
to watch.
(4) Women’s ski jumping should be
accepted as an event in the Olympics.
(1) (2) (3)
(4)
EXERCISE SET
EXERCISE 5
For each of the following examples, (a) decide
whether the passage contains an argument. If it
does, then (b) represent the argument in a
standardized form with the premises preceding the
conclusion. (c) Check carefully to see whether any
passage requires either a missing conclusion or a
missing premise. (d) Indicate any subarguments. (e)
If you add material that is not explicitly stated by the
author, give interpretive reasons for doing so.
Remember, there should be no supplementation
without justification.
2. High blood pressure is a real
health hazard. Therefore, anyone
who is overweight should get to
work and reduce.
Standardization:
(1) High blood pressure is a real health hazard.
(3) Being overweight is likely to cause high blood
pressure (missing premise)
Therefore,
(2) Anyone who is overweight should get to work
and reduce.
(1) + (3)
(2)
(3) Any busy person is at risk of
illnesses caused by stress. So all
mothers run those risks.
Standardization:
(1) Any busy person is at risk of illnesses
caused by stress.
(3) All mothers are busy persons, (missing
premise)
So,
(2) All mothers are at risk of illnesses caused
by stress.
(1) + (3)
(2)
(5) If people were truly
unselfish, they would give as
much to worthy charities as they
save for their old age. But do
they? You tell me!
Standardization:
(1) If people were truly unselfish, they would give as
much to worthy charities as they save for old age.
(3) People do not give as much to worthy charities
as they save for their old age. (missing premise,
indicated by the rhetorical question, "do they?")
Therefore,
(2) People are not truly unselfish, (missing
conclusion, indicated by the rhetorical question at
the end of the passage)
(1) + (3)
(2)
8. We all hope to grow old someday, and when we
grow old, we will need the services of retailers,
manufacturers, politicians, dentists, doctors, nurses,
and many other personnel. These people will
provide us with what we need, and they will help to
care for us. Who will they be? Only a few, if any, will
be our own children. The rest will be other people's
children. Thus, we all have a personal stake in
educating other people's children. Anyone who says,
"I am willing to pay to educate my own children, but
not other people's children" is making a serious
mistake.
Standardization:
(1) We all hope to grow old some day
(2) When we grow old we will need the services of retailers, manufacturers,
politicians, dentists, doctors, nurses, and many other personnel
(3) Retailers, manufacturers, politicians, dentists, doctors, nurses, and many other
personnel will provide us with what we need
(4) Retailers, manufacturers, politicians, dentists, doctors, nurses, and many other
personnel will help to care for us
(5) Only a few of retailers, manufacturers, etc. will be our own children
So,
(6)The rest of these people will be other people's children
Therefore, (7) We all have a personal stake in educating other people's children.
(3) And (4) are problematic here. Perhaps it’s best to see
them as supporting (2), the idea being that when we get old
we will need these peoples’ services to take care of us and
give us what we need.
(3) + (4)
(1) + (2)
(5)
+
(7)
(6)
11. Background: This passage comes from a book by Ahmed Rashid
about the Taliban party in Afghanistan.
There were no political conditions in which the Taliban were
prepared to compromise. After every military defeat they tightened
their gender policies ferociously, under the assumption that harsher
measures against women would sustain morale amongst their
defeated soldiers. And every victory led to another tightening
because the newly conquered population had to be shown Taliban
power. (Ahmed Rashid, Taliban: Militant Islam) Oil) and
Fundamentalism in Central Asia [New Haven, CT: Yale University
Press, 2001], p. 112.)
This doesn’t seem to be (best interpreted as) an argument.
13. "If Kelsey is highly intelligent,
she would only go out with
highly intelligent guys and I'm
not one of them. So why would
Kelsey go out with me?"
The conclusion is implied by the
rhetorical question at the end. It is (3)
Kelsey would not likely go out with the
speaker. The stated premises are (1) if
Kelsey is highly intelligent she would
only go out with highly intelligent guys
and (2) the speaker is not a highly
intelligent guy. An unstated premise,
which we will call (4), is that Kelsey is
highly intelligent.
(1) If Kelsey is highly intelligent she would
only go out with highly intelligent guys
(2) The speaker is not a highly intelligent guy.
(4) Kelsey is highly intelligent.
(3) Kelsey will not likely go out with the
speaker.
(1) + (2) + (4)
(3)
15. "I found out Kelsey is a librarian, which means
she's highly intelligent.“
(1) Kelsey is a librarian.
(2) Librarians are highly intelligent.
(3) Kelsey is highly intelligent.
(1) + (2)
(3)
16. "Since watching the news and reading the news are both elements in
the same syndrome, it is hardly surprising that TV news viewing is
positively associated with civic involvement. Those of us who rely solely
on TV news are not quite as civic in our behavior as our fellow citizens
who rely on newspapers, we news watchers are nevertheless more civic
than other Americans. Regular viewers of network newscasts ... spend
more time on community projects, attend more club meetings, and
follow politics much more closely than other Americans." (Robert
Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
Community [New York: Touchstone, 2001], p. 220.)
This is an argument if one invokes a great deal of
charity. By and large, however, it is description.
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