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Chapter4

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Chapter4
Starting Finishing and Styling
Introductions
First impressions are everything!
• Gain Audience Attention in the first 90 seconds
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Use a quote!
Tell a story!
Pose questions!
Say something startling!
Use humor!
Refer to the occasion!
Create common ground!
Motivate the Audience to
Accept Your Goals!
1.
2.
The topic is relevant!
You are qualified to address it!
Make Your Topic Relevant
Describe the practical implications.
Convince them that your speech has a
purpose.
Convince them that you share the same
values.
Are You Qualified?
Simply share why you are qualified? (Brag
a little…it’s really okay.)
Emphasize some experience, knowledge, or
perspective you have that is different from
or more extensive than that of your
audience.
Conclusion
Signal to the audience that the speech is
coming to an end and provide closure.
Summarize the key points
Reiterate the topic and speech purpose
Challenge the audience to respond
End the speech memorably
Signal the Close of the Speech and
Provide Closure
Say:
• “In conclusion…”
• “Finally…”
• “In review…”
Never Say:
• “That is all I have for you…”
• “I’m done…”
Summarizing Key Points
“Tell them what you are going to tell them.
(Introduction)
Tell them. (Body)
Tell the what you already told them.
(Conclusion).” (p. 115).
Reiterate the Topic and Speech
Purpose
The conclusion should reiterate the topic
and speech purpose-to imprint it on the
audience’s memory.
Challenge the Audience to Respond
Informative Speech-challenge the audience
members to use what they have learned in a
way that will benefit them.
Persuasive Speech- requires a call to action.
• Call to Action-
Make the Speech Memorable
Use the same devices for capturing the
audience’s attention.
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Quotes
Stories
Questions
Startling Statements
Humor
References to the Audience
Using Your Language!
Style- The specific word choices and rhetorical
devices (techniques of language) that speakers use
to express their ideas.
Rhetorical Devices- A technique of language
used to achieve a desired effect.
Figures of Speech- Expressions, such as
metaphors, similes, analogies, and hyperbole, in
which words are used in a non-literal fashion
Using Your Language!
Simile- A figure of speech used to compare one thing with another by using the words
“like or “as” (exp: He works like a dog”).
Metaphor- A figure of speech used to make implicit comparison without the use of
“like” or “as” (exp: Love is a rose).
Analogy- An extended metaphor or simile that compares an unfamiliar concept or
process with a more familiar one in order to help the listener understand the one that is
unfamiliar.
Voice- A feature of verbs in written and spoken text that indicates the subject’s
relationship to the action; verbs can be either active or passive.
Anaphora- A Rhetorical device in which the speaker repeats a word or phrase at the
beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.
Parallelism- The arrangement of words, phrases, or sentences in similar grammatical
and stylistic form. Parallel structure can help the speaker emphasize important ideas in
the speech.
Antithesis- A rhetorical device in which two ideas are set off in balanced (parallel)
opposition to one another.
Chapter4
Starting Finishing and Styling
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