Federal v. Unitary Structure What is a unitary structure? How is it different from a federal structure? What is a confederal structure? NEGATIVE EFFECTS Didn’t federalism contribute to the perpetuation of racial discrimination? …allow environmental problems to worsen? Doesn’t a federal form of government inhibit quick responses to serious problem? Have the American states become outmoded? Why should Delaware or Alaska possess as much power constitutionally as California? DO NOW: 1. 2. Take out reading on the merits and demerits of federalism. What is the difference between a unitary and a federal system of government? PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARDS FEDERALISM (Public opinion poll) MERITS/DEMERITS OF FEDERALISM (reading excerpt) 1. Which arguments in favor of federalism are strongest?…weakest? 2. Which arguments against federalism are strongest?…weakest? 3. Do the merits outweigh the demerits? HAMILTONIAN V. JEFFERSONIAN VIEW OF DEMOCRACY What is the difference? Which view prevailed early on in our history? What is nullification? What “settled” that question? What is dual federalism? Does it exist? DO NOW: 1. 2. 3. Take out your chapter outline and the McCulloch v. Maryland summary. HAMILTONIAN V. JEFFERSONIAN VIEW OF DEMOCRACY : What is the difference? What is meant by “dual federalism”? 10TH AMENDMENT AND THE ELASTIC CLAUSE How are the 10th Amendment and elastic language of Article I, Section 8 at odds? What two Constitutional questions did the Supreme Court answer in McCulloch v. Maryland? How was each question answered? How did the Supreme Court decision in McCulloch v. Maryland influence the status of the 10th Amendment? Why doesn’t the federal government always intervene when states defy its authority? For example, Nevada permits prostitution Some states have legalized marijuana/allow medicinal use of marijuana Physician assisted suicide Could the federal government intervene? What are grants-in-aid and why have they grown over the years? What is the difference between categorical grants and block grants or general revenue sharing? Explain why, despite repeated attempts to reverse the trend, categorical grants have continued to grow more rapidly than block grants. Distinguish between mandates and conditions–in-aid with respect to federal grant programs to states and localities. To what extent have federal grants to the states succeeded in creating uniform national policies comparable to those of centralized governments. Why have grants-in-aid grown enormously since the 1960s? Why have conditions-in-aid grown in recent decades? Who is more likely to favor block grants over categorical grants – a liberal or a conservative? Explain. Despite the devolution revolution, why have categorical grants increased at a much faster rate than block grants? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How did the Supreme court decision in McCulloch v. Maryland influence the status of the 10th Amendment? What is the distinction between categorical grants and block grants? (purpose, funding, conditions-in-aid) Why do states (governors/Mayors) say they prefer block grants over categorical grants? Why do conservatives prefer block grants? Why do liberals prefer categorical grants? 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Why have grants-in-aid grown dramatically over the course of our nation’s history? (state perspective and federal government perspective) What is meant by “devolution”? Why did Ronald Reagan support it? Are we in the midst of a “devolution revolution”? Explain. Distinguish between “mandates” and “conditions-in-aid”. Do interest groups produce grants-in-aid or do grants–in-aid produce interest groups? Doesn’t the system of grants-in-aid upset the balance of power of federalism? (bribe into compliance) Agree/Disagree: Federalism is troublesome in that the diversity of state laws and procedures creates inequities from a national perspective. Agree/Disagree: Federalism is troublesome in that it can promote unequal educational opportunities (wealthier states can provide better services) Agree/Disagree: Grants-in-aid have disrupted the balance of power that the framers intended federalism to provide. Example of Devolution: Welfare Reform Act 1996 (AFDC to TANF) Oregon’s Physician Assisted Suicide Law: Can states make it legal for doctor’s to help end a terminally ill patient’s life? State marijuana laws?