Author’s Craft, Character Analysis, and Mystery Analysis What is the “author’s craft”? Language and techniques the author purposely uses to craft (or create) and enhance a story Includes LITERARY DEVICES, STYLE, and NARRATIVE ELEMENTS Literary Devices Figures of speech Writing techniques – Help the reader visualize Literary Devices Simile Metaphor Personification Hyperbole Imagery Literary Term Allusion – the writer or speaker refers either directly or indirectly to a person, event, or thing in history or to a work of art or literature "Christy didn't like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities". Who/what is being alluded to? Literary Devices Irony – when the outcome is the opposite of what is expected – One would expect a billboard on a crowded road to be seen by many people. When Calvin Schwa rents one in an attempt to finally be noticed, the road upon which it is located is, ironically, closed for construction so no one sees it and he remains “unseen.” Narrative Elements Aspects of storytelling Follow story arc or story structure Common and identifiable Narrative Elements Flashback – the interruption of present-tense action to reveal a scene that took place at an earlier time Narrative Elements Foreshadowing – hints that suggest future events in a story – Example: a weapon found in a drawer early in a story might foreshadow a future crime in the story Narrative Elements Theme – the message about life and human nature that can be inferred from the events and outcomes of a story Narrative Elements Conflict – a major or important problem in a story. Can be internal (within a character) or external (between characters). Character vs. character, character vs. nature, character vs. uncontrollable force, character vs. self Point of View - the way in which the author chooses to tell the story – First person, third person limited, third person omniscient Methods of Characterization Characterization – the way in which an author reveals characters’ personalities through – their – their – their – their words thoughts actions physical description Methods of Characterization 1. 2. Direct Indirect Methods of Characterization 1. Direct: “he was an old man..” (The Old Man and the Sea) • Information provided to the reader from the author • Details stated as facts Indirect Characterization Physical appearance – Usually Hamadi was wearing a white shirt, shiny black tie, and a jacket that reminded Susan of the earth’s surface just above the treeline on a mountain—thin, somehow purified. Actions – Disregarding the song of the birds, the waving green trees, and the smell of the flowers, Jimmy headed straight for a restaurant. Own Words “I cannot help these people yet,” he calmly told me. “But when the time comes, I will help them all that I can.” Thoughts and feelings Although she warned that she hadn’t tried her hand at baking sweets for some time, I was certain that like everything else about her the cookies would be perfect. Annotation Students will annotate focusing on the elements of Author’s Craft The purpose of this annotation will be to: – Build awareness of the purposeful choices authors make – Use this awareness to accurately identify and understand mood, characterization, and theme of a piece of literature.