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Athens

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Athens
도시계획연구 I
다니엘라 루이스 도시공학과
석서과정
iice 201536021
Athens responsible for been the first at many
thing for the western society
Democracy
Systematization of Medicine and
Science
Philosophy
Comedy and Tragedy
History
Naturalistic Art
Lyrical Poetry
Principals and Norms of
Architecture
2/37
Why Athens?
• Athenians were a confident society and
enjoyed of their own independent judgment
• Because of this great philosopher and thinkers
were able to emerge:
Protagoras
Hippocrates
Socrates
Plato
Aristotle
3/37
Why Athens?
• The different types or arts like theater and sculpture
where successful because of the need of knowledge
and educated.
4/37
The Athenian Achievement
Philosophy
• The biggest difference of Athens with the
previous civilization was that they always
asked “Why?”
5/37
The Athenian Achievement
Philosophy
• Many of the
philosophers that
where in Athens were
not necessarily
Athenians
• Philosophy began in
the beginning of the
5th century B.C with
Thales, Anaximander
and Anaximenes from
Miletus.
Anaximander
Thales
Anaximenes
6/37
The Athenian Achievement
Philosophy
• First group of philosopher were the Sophist.
– They are responsible for the Dualism “there is
two sides for every subject”.
– They argued that the human talent was not given
by the God, but its part of human nature that
could also be enhanced by teaching.
– They begging the rationalism by using selfobservation and been self-critical.
– They discover the notion that scientific truth,
ethical standards and religious creed are
historically conditioned.
– Their new thinking and criteria influenced
Herodotus and Thucydides, Sophocles and
Euripides, and other.
– Even though at the beginning the sophist were
persecuted they contributed to the big change of
Athens.
7/37
The Athenian Achievement
Drama
• Theater and Comedy where one of the most
important contributions from the Athenians.
– To be a playwright was to be a popular figure in
society.
• Most of the playwright aspired to receive an Ivy Crown.
– The Dramas had their main topics:
•
•
•
•
Politics
Social issues
Moral issues
Religious content
8/37
The Athenian Achievement
Drama
• Greek language is a concise , effective and
direct that expresses a complex set of ideas
with a single sentences.
• With the Greek alphabet in the 8th century
Greeks started to develop written literature.
• Greek literature:
– Poems
– Books
– Theater
9/37
The Athenian Achievement
Drama
• Books
– Writing books started late, after the alphabet was invented.
– Greeks had thousands of writers that wrote several story's but
must of the books were burned during the Byzantine empire.
– How ever one of the most important books written is THE
ILIADA AND ODYSSEY
• Poems
– First form of literature.
– Poems started as a lyrical traditions that was sung and
expressed the poet’s emotions.
– After a while the poets also became the music composers of
music.
10/37
The Athenian Achievement
Drama
• Theater
– Theater was the most popular of the arts made by the Athenians.
– Festivals were held where several plays would take place and the 5
judges would tell who the winner is.
– It had audience of up to 14,000 people where the actor had to
communicate through gestures, movements and their voice
– The play’s had political references and satirical critics to society.
• This was because of the intellectual need of Athens.
• Tragedy and Comedy were the most common style of this performing art.
– Tragedy was directly felt by the people, creating reactions like crying
inevitable for the public.
– Comedy was licensed to make fun of everything.
• Except for the plagues that killed thousands of people and some
sexual contents .
11/37
The Athenian Achievement
Art
• Due to Athenians intellectual search, art became
part of their lives and it was taken for granted.
• As much as art was important, the artist was seen
as craftsmen.
• Artisans where known for their workmenship and
precise technique.
• Writer
• Musician
• As the other type of arts there
• Philosopher
is a relationship between art
• Artist
and religion.
12/37
The Athenian Achievement
Art
• Architecture
– Architecture was modest
• Domestic architecture was insignificant.
• Temples are modest but looked for total perfection in
technique and esthetic.
– Proportion and idea beauty was what Greeks
looked for when constructing a public building.
13
The Athenian Achievement
Art
• Sculpture
– Compare with other ancient
civilizations Athenians looked for the
understanding of anatomy.
– They tried to use naturalism but not
realism so that they can portray
what ever emotion they wanted too.
– Chiasmos: understanding of the
position of the arm and legs when in
movement.
– When making sculpture Greeks used
aesthetic
theory
based
on
mathematical proportions.
– Originality came from the rendering
and harmony of the sculpture.
14/37
Demos and Polis
•
Polis
– Economic
– Political
– Rural
Unit
•
The polis was the result of:
– Population growth
– Pressure on land
– Development of commercial economy
•
•
At the beginning the polis was self-sufficient and self-governing group of villages.
Geographical characteristic
– Narrow
– Closed region around an urban center
– Bordered by mountains and sea
The polis were usually small except for Athens
•
15/37
Demos and Polis
• The polis where result of:
– Geography + Culture
• Peoples roles in the polis:
– Farmers
– Craftsmen
– Sailor
• The polis was a union of the urban and rural
area that wanted to be self-sufficient.
16/37
Demos and Polis
Polis
Territory
• Demos = The People
Citizens
• People = State = City
• In Athens only citizens could have land property in the Polis.
• Creation of direct democracy
– Constitutional order
– One group must never have a monopoly of political power
– Creation of political institutions
• Courts
• Other legal systems
– Every Athenians had political rights in the election of local and state
officials.
• Education = Private responsibility
• Average citizens practice a passive democracy
– Listening and voting
17/37
The City
• Small population
• City characteristics:
– Near the sea
– On top of a tall hill
– Small
• Polis structure
– Acropolis
• House of the Gods.
• In Athens one of the temples was the
Parthenon
– A construction made by the assembly
– Agora
• The center of the lower town “the market
place” or “civic center”
• The living heart of the city.
• Before theater became popular it was the
performing place for performing arts.
18/37
The City
• The edges of the Agora division:
– Circles (cycloi) for trading
• West --> metal and iron market
• South-east --> Pedlars’ market (a place where people toll their goods
and sold them)
• Fruit market
–
–
–
–
–
Fresh fruit and dried fruit
Olive oil and wines
Flowers
Drugs species and perfumes
Other goods
– Fish city (ichthyopolis)
• Smoked fish
• Un-smoked fish
– Cloths market (himatiopolis or speiropolis)
– Women’s agora (gynaikeia)
• Where stolen goods where sold
19/37
The City
20/37
The City
• Theatron was any place where
people gathered to see a thea or
spectacle.
– It was located near a slop so the
crowd could seat.
• The Academy or Gymnasium
– Well watered grove, running tracks
and shady walks.
• Because of all the infrastructure
in Athens the construction of the
city was expensive
21/37
The Quality of Athenian Life
• Athens = public opulence and private squalor
• Home:
–
–
–
–
Tiny
Primitive
Poor hygiene
Austere furnishing
• Cloths and Diets:
– Meals based in Fish
– Bread base porridge
– They used the same blanket that they used to sleep to wear as cloths
• Basic services:
– Lighting
– Water
– Heat
Non-existent
• Intellectual development was more important
22/37
The Quality of Athenian Life
• Quality of the city:
– Low hygiene
– Low life expectancy
• Low quality of housing
– Narrow streets
– House huddled together
– Low or non existing sanitary equipment’s
• The personal citizens life quality suffered for
political, social and religion life.
• Athenians quality of life = Community quality
23/37
Public Finance and Public Works
• Socialist minimalist state
– Athens didn’t work with an annual budget
• Taxes
– Taxes were voluntary (leitourgiai)
– Non citizens and despised professions had to pay taxes
– Eponion:
• Tax on trade
– Leitourgiai
• Started as a tax of service to the state  Service to the divinity
• Two ways of contribution
– Agon: by any task performance:
» Construction of public space
» Maintaining chorus
» Athletic contest
» Military trireme
– Khoregia: money given for the arts
24/37
Public Finance and Public Works
• Athens created a socialism that would keep the lower classes calm
and the rich people always in their high status.
– The lower classes were offered civil work and military duties.
• Tribute Money of the allies
– Was a tax for public works
• It created different types of work from carpenters to miners
• Fall of the system
– The decline of taxable values.
– Limits on private consumption.
– Excessive demand for citizens and foreign soldiers to pay taxes.
– The unwillingness to pay the taxes from the better-off people.
– Primitive political organization.
25/37
Explanations: Geography
•
•
•
•
Negative
Greece = poor land
Climate
– Rough winters
– Hot summers
– It rains during winter time when its too
cold for crops to grow.
• Dry-farming cereals was basic crop
• Cereals and most of the food came
from different places
– Goats was the main source of cheese
and mild because it was difficult to
maintain other animals in Greece
difficult conditions.
Agriculture was very primitive in ancient
Greece.
Trade:
– Roads were limited due to the
topography
– Internal rivers were navigable
depending on the season
Positive
•
•
•
Climate:
– All year long sunshine
• Stimulated the Greeks minds
• Keep people out of their houses and gave them a very
public mind.
– Summer is very sunny how ever low humidity makes nice
weather.
• Allowing people to complete this daily task and not
taking energy away from them.
– Climate made the streets the educational platform for
Athenians.
• Market-places, gymnasia and theaters where the
source of their knowledge.
– Athenians characteristics:
• Though active
• Enterprising
• Intelligent
Fig, olive and vine were the main source of export.
Trade:
– Main value of the sea was for trading purpose.
– Ports were highly developed.
– Maritime trade brought influence from East:
• Babylonia
• Egypt
26/37
• North of Syria
Trade and Empire
Sea = Trade = Exchange of Ideas = Empire
Empire = Wealth = leisure and creation of new ideas and art.
•
•
•
•
Trade started in Greece relatively late.
– 6th century trade started catching up with the rest of civilizations and Greece was wining rapidly different
markets.
– Trade was simple: it sold anything that offered great profit.
– Development of market systems made Athens economy grow above others.
– Athens had the biggest foreign trade.
500BC coins started to appear in Athens
– Made Greece stronger
Finance:
– Traveling expenses made the merchants borrow money to finance the ventures.
– Interest rated 100% because of the great risk of the ventures.
Banking development:
– Banking business through the polis temples.
• Low interest rates
– Privet banking :
• Most celebrated banker Pasion because of his capacity of doing international business.
– Pawn credit and personal credit
– Athenians became the bankers
27/37
Trade and Empire
28/37
Trade and Empire
• An empire was possible for
Athenians because they
achieved settled
conditions at home.
– City-state was
organized and
abundant in resources.
• Empire was possible:
– New markets were
opened
– New land was obtained
– Tribute money from
weaker allies
29/37
Manufacturing: the Greek Achilles Hell
• Trade didn't boost
manufacturing sector.
• Greece had many craftsmen
and artisan but because of
their low social status they
were never able to grow.
• Technological advance was
inexistent:
– Search of knowledge made
Greeks understand science
but not apply or invent.
30/37
Athenian Society
• Social structure:
– Aristocracy
• Owned land
• Had political careers
• Investors that got involved in commerce, mining and contracting
– Upper middle and middle middle class
• Smaller farmers
• Overseas traders
• Among others
– Lower middle class
• Craftsmen
• Artisans
– Lower class
• Causal workers
31/37
The Metics
• Metis = Alien Residents
• They paid an special tax in order to live in Athens.
• No political right but they were protected by the laws of
the Polis.
• Worked in different field making the Metics and the slaves
ran the economy of Athens.
• Metics were in vas majority the traders.
– Good business intuition
– International connections
• Big roll in art, medicine and philosophy
– Hipocates –Doctor
– Phaeinos - Astronomer
– Herodotus – Historian
32/37
Slavery
• Athens democracy function
because of slaves
• Slaves role:
– State employees
– Belong to individual owners
• Slaves were paid the citizens and
non-citizens
• They could buy their freedom
• Slavery gave no incentive to
mechanical invention
33/37
Greek Belief and Values
•
•
Polytheism:
– harmony between the humans and the superhuman forces.
– Believe of power = power to make the most of capacities and opportunities.
– The universe was structured made by the gods that could understand the
humans.
Concept of hero:
– Men who had superior qualities of body and mind. They used this to win the
respect of other men.
– Pythagoras division of mankind
• Seekers of knowledge
• Seekers f honor
• Seekers of gain
– To become a hero every person was constantly aware of been publicly judge.
• Good person: courage, temperance, justice and wisdom.
• Good life: health, beauty, wealth and friends.
– Independence: for the Greeks this was the most important thing .
34/37
Greek Belief and Values
35/37
Athens in Crisis
•
•
•
•
•
Economical and Moral crisis
Economical crisis:
– The war destroyed the agriculture and reduce the
population.
– Speculation and power of money corrupted the Polis.
– Democracy suffered:
• Reach and poor own affairs deserted the assemblies
Greek morality:
– Critical impact on traditional values making young people
lose their faith in the Polis.
– Big philosophical debate happened among different
philosophers.
– Respect for the rights of the individual contradicted
imperial thoughts.
Persecution of intellectuals:
– The people that were once respected were now
persecuted because of the disbelief of the supernatural.
– The leader of progressive thought were banish from
society.
Spartan victory:
– Persecution of  Rich Men, Metics and Men of Democratic
Convictions.
36/37
Why Athens?
• Athenian society and culture were based on exploitation:
– They existed because of tribute money that flowed directly
from the empire to the great collective public work
– Retain of critical features of an aristocratic society
– Survived because
• Tax contribution
• Labor work
• Commerce contribution
• Artistic contribution
• Philosophical contribution
• Athens success was because of changes and revolutions that
generated a great society with unique and creative ideas.
37/37
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