close

Se connecter

Se connecter avec OpenID

Chapter 3 Colonies Come of Age

IntégréTéléchargement
CHAPTER 3
COLONIES COME OF AGE
1650 - 1765
Section 1 England & It’s Colonies
Section 2 Agricultural South
Section 3 Commercial North
Section 4 French & Indian War
CHAPTER 3 OBJECTIVES
THE COLONIES COME OF AGE
Learn about and analyze the key factors that would
strain the relationship between England & its Colonies
 Among the key factors:

Economic
 Social / Human Rights
 Political Growth
 The Power of Ideas

CHAPTER 3 KEY DATES
THE COLONIES COME OF AGE
1651 Parliament passes first Navigation Acts
1660 English Monarchy re-established with return of Charles
II
1686 James II creates Dominion of New England
1688 Glorious Revolution establishes Parliament as supreme
over Monarchy
1710 Act of Union unites England, Scotland, Wales
1733 Benjamin Franklin publishes Poor Richard’s Almanac
1754 French & Indian War begins
1763 Treaty of Paris Ends French & Indian War
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Key Terms







Mercantilism
Parliament
Navigation Acts
Dominion of England
Sir Edmund Andros
Glorious Revolution
Salutary Neglect
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES
1.
2.
Tighten England’s control over trade; protect
against competition; increase England’s wealth
Increased England’s wealth by creating &
protecting jobs for English citizens; protected
English access to certain goods
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES
3.
4.
5.
6.
Spurred boom in the ship-building industry;
England support colonial industry
Restricted Trade
Unpopularity of King James II (Catholicism); head
off another Catholic king
Establishment of Parliament’s Power over the
Crown
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES
7.
Restoration of colonies original charter;
requirements for more religious freedom in
Massachusettes;
SALUTORY NEGLECT
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
New England
colonies
www.nps.gov/.../aah/AAheritage/histContextsD.htm
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
New England colonies
Massachusetts.........shipbuilding, shipping, fishing,
lumber, rum, meat products
 New Hampshire ........ship masts, lumber, fishing, trade,
shipping, livestock, foodstuffs
 Connecticut ..............rum, iron foundries, shipbuilding,
 Rhode Island ............snuff, livestock

CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
Middle colonies
go.hrw.com/venus_images/M03a02.gif
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
Middle colonies
New York ..................furs, wheat, glass, shoes, livestock,
shipping, shipbuilding, rum, beer, snuff
 Delaware..................trade, foodstuffs
 New Jersey...............trade, foodstuffs, copper
 Pennsylvania ............flax, shipbuilding

CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
Southern colonies
Virginia....tobacco, wheat, cattle, iron
 Maryland.......tobacco, wheat, snuff
 North Carolina .naval supplies, tobacco, furs
 South Carolina..........rice, indigo, silk
 Georgia ..indigo, rice, naval supplies, lumber

CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Mercantilism


British felt the colonies should enrich Britain because
the ultimate goal was for a country to become selfsustaining.
Balance of Trade


Country wants sell more goods than it buys (more
money coming in)
Colonies supplied raw materials; Colonies bought
finished goods from Britain
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES
 Navigation
Rationale
Colonial businesses were selling raw materials
directly to competing countries.
 British felt that this type of trade was an economic
threat (the other countries would take the raw
materials and produce the same goods to sell)
Rules
 All goods had to be shipped via English ships
 Ship’s crew must be ¾ English
 Certain products could only be exported to England
 Most goods had to pass through English seaports


Acts (1651) British
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES
 Navigation





Acts (cont’d)
Some Colonial businesses ignored the rules –
smuggling & illegal trading were common.
For the most part England ignored these activities
…..
King Charles II decided to take action & indentified
Massachusetts merchants as the biggest offenders
The Merchants (predominantly Puritans) felt they
did not have to obey Parliament’s laws
England revokes Massachusetts Charter & places the
colony under the direct authority of the king
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Navigation Acts (cont’d)
King Charles II
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_II_of_England
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Dominion of New England
The King James II places all Northern Colonies into
a single entity – the Dominion
 Appoints Sir Edmund Andros to rule it

He tells colonists “You have no privileges left you, than not
being sold for slaves”
 Questions the legitimacy of Puritan’s religion


Colonists want Andros gone & their old charter
restored
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Dominion of New England

Sir Edmund Andros
http://www.yorktownsquare.com/img/040908-sub-Gov-Sir-Edmund-Andros.jpg
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Glorious Revolution –

England
King James II
Is Catholic & not of fan of Protestantism
 Also not a fan of Parliament


Most subjects are Protestant AND like Parliament

Kings like him were the reason the people created this body
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Glorious Revolution –

England
When James II fathers an heir
Parliament invites James II son-in-law, William of Orange,
to England to take over
 James II takes off & William is offered/accepts the Throne


Parliament passes laws of its power over the crown
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Glorious Revolution –

William of Orange
England
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Glorious Revolution –
Colonies
Massachusetts colonists find out about King James II
Departure
 Bloodless Rebellion
 Arrest Andros & his councilors
 Parliament eliminate Dominion & re-establishes
colonies

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

Glorious Revolution –
Colonies
However Parliament Makes rules for Massachusetts
 King appoints the governor
 More non-Puritan representation in colonial
assembly
 Puritans must cease persecuting Anglicans, Quakers.

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

England Loosens Up on Colonies

England is focused on France


Battling for control of Europe
England adds more teeth to the Navigation Acts
Trials of Smugglers moved from colonial courts to admiralty
courts / English judges
 Created an advisory group known as the Board of Trade
granting power to monitor colonial trade

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 1
ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES

England Loosens Up on Colonies

However, as long as colonies continued to export raw
materials to England & import manufactured goods
from England – measures were not strictly enforced =
Salutary Neglect
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH

TERMS





Cash Crop
Slave
Triangular Trade
Middle Passage
Stono Rebellion
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH
 PLANTATION


ECONOMY
The South’s economy depended heavily on Agriculture
 Tobacco from Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina
 Rice, Indigo from South Carolina & Georgia
Focus on a single type of crop to be SOLD for money
rather than consumed by the “planters” – CASH CROP
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH

PLANTATION ECONOMY



This type of farming required lots of land - preferably
located on deep rivers to allow ocean going vessels to
ship directly to Northern Colonies and Europe
Plantation owners produced what they needed from the
plantation so know need for independent commerce e.g.,
shops, bakeries, stores
RURAL & SELF SUFFICIENT
CHAPTER 3
SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH

Diverse Population

Immigration Patterns Germans, settle in Maryland,
Virginia, South Carolina - raise Grain, Livestock &
Tobacco; Scots & Scots-Irish mainly in hills of
Western North Carolina

Women
Second Class citizens, Basic, limited education. Mostly
focused on domestic chores
 Planters daughters were spared household chores because
servants handled these

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH

Diverse Population
Small farmers majority of population
 Planters controlled economy & had great Prosperity 1713 to 1774 Tobacco prices triple
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH

Diverse Population

Indentured Servants
Traded their labor in exchange for passage to colonies and
future freedom
 Estimates indicate that One-half to Two-Thirds of all white
immigrants after 1630 were Indentured Servants
 Because of the harsh conditions, the influx of Indentured
Servants dissipated, creating a need for alternative Labor
resources

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH

Slavery

Europeans had a long tradition forced labor e.g.,
serfs, indentured servants, servants

When demand for labor outstripped supply the
Planters turned to enslaving African peoples.

By 1750 more than 200,000 Africans were forced to
work in the Southern Colonies
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH

Africans had been enslaved to work on
sugar Plantations in Barbados & Jamaica in
the 1600s (almost 60,000 by 1690)
 Triangular



Trade
Rum & Other goods ship from New
England to Africa
This merchandise is traded for slaves,
who are brought to the West Indies &
sold to the Planters for sugar & molasses
New England distills the sugar and
molasses into Rum & ships it to Africa
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH
 European
Slave Trade

Middle Passage was the segment of the Triangular
Trade that brought the slaves from Africa to the West
Indies/North America

Slavery in the South
 80-90 % of slaves brought to the colonies
worked in the fields
 The remaining slaves worked as domestics or
artisans
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH

Africans in the Colonies

Were pulled from different areas of Africa but despite
the diversity

The strong culture of “Kinship” was a driving force
that enabled other slaves to help preserve some
semblance of family

The long-developed sense for nature and respect for
ancestry helped the slaves preserve key activities
such as storytelling, music, and dance
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 2
THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH

Africans in the Colonies
 Resistance & Revolt
Many slaves did resist their condition (slowdowns,
faked illness)
 Others resorted to outright rebellion and escape
attempts


Stono Rebellion – 20 armed slaves revolted,
killing a number of Planter families; invited
other slaves to join them and escape to Florida

The revolt was put down with the slaves dying during the
clash or were subsequently executed
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

Key Terms
Enlightenment
 Benjamin Franklin
 Jonathan Edwards
 Great Awakening

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

Commerce Grows in the North

“The North” includes New England & Middle
Colonies

Mercantilism - contributed to economic growth in
both England and the colonies

1650 to 1750 Colonies’ economy grew twice as fast as fast as
England’s economy
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

Commerce Grows in the North

Development of Urban Centers


As Trade increases Port Cities Grow
 New York, Boston, Philadelphia as significant ports
Philadelphia becomes the 2nd largest city in the
British Empire
Grid plan drawn from Wren’s rebuilding plan for London
(after Great Fire of 1666)
 Parks, Police, Street Lighting
 Lack of firewood, clean water, sanitation systems

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

Commerce Grows in the North

Immigrants start arriving from other countries
In 1700 English/Welsh dominated Colonial Immigrant
Population (80%)
 By 1755 the % of English/Welsh immigrants made up on
52%
 Africans slave made up 20%
 Scots-Irish, Scottish, Irish & Dutch another 26%
 Other ethnic groups included Scandinavians, Jews

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

Ben Franklin’s Complaint

“Why should the Germans be suffered to swarm into
our Settlements and, by herding together establish
their Language and Manners to the Exclusion of
ours? Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the
English, become a Colony of Aliens, who will shortly
be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our
Anglifying them?”
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

Commerce Grows in the North

Slavery in the North
 Did exist in New England & was Extensive in the
Middle Colonies
 Unlike the South, slaves in the north did have
some legal standing
 Could sue & be sued
 Right of appeal / use of court system
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

Commerce Grows in the North

Slavery in the NORTH
 Harsh conditions as in South
 Laws forbade them from owning weapons and
getting together to form rebellions
 1712 New York 21 executed
 1741 fear of a potential uprising – leads to burning
alive of 13 slaves & hanging of 18 other slaves
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

Women In Northern Society


Northern Colonial Wives
 No legal rights
 No right to vote
 Could not enter into contracts
 Could not buy or sell property
 Could not keep their own wages (if they worked
outside home)
Only single women/ widows could run their own
business
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

Salem Witch Trials – Feb 1692
Environment of Fear due to
 Strict limits on women
 Fear of Native American attack
 RELIGIOUS FANATICISM
 False accusations
 19 Hanged
 01 Crushed to Death
 150 Imprisoned

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

New Ideas Influence the Colonists

The Enlightenment & Religion
Beginning around the Renaissance period, humans began to
look beyond religious tenets to answer questions about the
workings of the world
 Individuals moved from belief in spiritual prescripts to
scientific research & methodologies
 As humans began to find that mathematical logic could be
used to address many of the physical wonders of the
universe – the authoritarian position of the church and
religion weakened

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

New Ideas Influence the Colonists

The Enlightenment & Authoritarian Govt’s


As with religion, some European & Colonial figures began
to reflect upon the rights of an individual
This concept challenged the current notion that a ruling
class/government did not have the authority to deny its
people what are considered to be natural rights
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH
 New

Ideas Influence the Colonists
The Great Awakening
 Puritans losing control of their region
 Charter of 1691 that demanded tolerance
 Membership decreasing
 People are focused on the Material World not the
Here-After
 Two approaches are taken to try to retain/grow
membership
 “Old Lights” rely upon authoritarian means
 “New Lights” travel the colonies & use revival
meetings to convert / attract members
 New Denominations – e.g., Baptists,
Methodists
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 3
THE COMMERCIAL NORTH

New Ideas Influence the Colonists
Enlightenment stressed human rights & reasoning
 The Great Awakening stressed the importance of the
individual & de-emphasized the role of church
authority

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

Rivals For an Empire





Frenchman Jacque Cartier explores St. Lawrence
seaway (1534)
Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec (1608)
French traders head deep into the continent
Robert Cavalier claims Mississippi Valley for France
(1682) naming it Louisiana
Population of New France in 1754 is 70,000

Population of British Colonies is (1,000,000)
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

Rivals For an Empire

French colonists consisted primarily of Fur Traders
and Catholic Priests
The Traders were interested in commerce
 The Priests were interested in converts


French colonists had better relationship Indians
The Indians trapped for furs and then traded them to the
French for goods
 Unlike the English, the French Colonists weren’t squeezing
the Indians out of their lands

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

Britain Defeats an Old Enemy





France & Britain fought 2 wars over the past 50
years – inconclusive
France builds Ft. Duquesne (Pittsburgh)
Problem is Gov of Virginia had given 200,000 acres of
land to wealthy planters
George Washington (22) builds Ft. Necessity about 40
miles from Duquesne
GW attacks Duquesne in May 1754 but loses
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

Britain Defeats an Old Enemy
British, led by General Braddock attack Ft.
Duquesne again
 French/Native Americans use guerilla tactics versus
the British form of combat – lining up in rows and
marching directly at the enemy. British flee
 Washington gets first-hand view of British military
might & is not impressed
 Brits continue to lose throughout 1755 & 1756

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

Britain Defeats an Old Enemy

William Pitt takes over the reigns
Demands more government funding
 Hires new generals
 Possesses military savvy



Iroquois Nation at odds with French, Huron and
Algonquin tribes
When Pitt-led army starts winning, the Iroquois join
forces with British
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

Deciding Battle
September 1759
 Plains of Abraham outside Quebec
 General James Wolfe leads British on night-time
attack surprising & defeats French General
Montcalm & French Troops
 This British victory led to the end of the war and the
Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

Treaty of Paris 1763
Britain gets all of NORTH AMERICA east of the
Mississippi
 Including Florida from Spain (who was French ally)
 Spain get French land west of the Mississippi
including New Orleans
 France keeps a few islands near West Indies and
Newfoundland

CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

Victory Brings New Problems
 Native Americans recognize that British Colonial
expansion into their land bodes very poorly for the
future
 Pontiac determines that British authorities will do
nothing to help – leads attack on British forts &
captures 8 of them
 British use germ warfare by giving small-pox
infected blankets to two Delaware chiefs during
peace negotiations. Disease spreads rapidly
 Most Native American Groups sign Peace Treaties by
1765
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

Victory Brings New Problems
Proclamation of 1763 is signed between British and
Native Americans.
 It banned colonists from settling WEST of the
Appalachians



Proclamation Line
British could not enforce it so colonists kept moving
West
CHAPTER 3 SECTION 4
THE FRENCH & INDIAN WAR
 Colonies

& Britain Grow Apart
British Policies anger the colonies
Proclamation Line prohibits Colonists from expanding
 British incurred heavy debt from war and need
revenue

Crackdown on smuggling – Writs of Assistance allowed
British officials to search merchant ships & building
(including homes)
 King George III appoints George Grenville to help solve
British financial woes


Sugar Tax 1764
Cut tax on molasses by one-half in hopes merchants
would pay the lower tax rather than risk getting caught
for smuggling
 Placed duties on certain imports
 Strenghthened the law allowing prosecutors to try
smugglers in vice-admiralty courts rather than colonial
courts

Auteur
Документ
Catégorie
Без категории
Affichages
1 307
Taille du fichier
965 Кб
Étiquettes
1/--Pages
signaler