Golden Ages & Invasions! Asia: The later years China: The Later Years Tang Dynasty Overthrew Sui Dynasty • Ruled nearly 300 yrs • Began a GOLDEN AGE! China grew in area and population • • Tang Taizong Emperor at 16 yrs. old Helped his father to start the Tang dynasty Ruled from 626-649 AD Successful general, scholar, historian, & calligraphy artist Tang Taizong cont’d Was influenced by Confucius Initiated land reformgiving more land to peasants who farmed it Song Dynasty Taizu began the dynasty in 960 and ruled until 1279 Advanced the govt by extending the merit system- now, to KEEP your job in the civil service, you had to perform well! Taizu AGRICULTURAL IMPROVEMENTS New strains of rice & Better irrigation methods Higher yields & Two crops per yr. FOOD SURPLUS & POPULATION INCREASE! Song Dynasty Cont. Some inventions of the time: gunpowder as a weapon smallpox vaccine magnetic compass ** movable type (A.D. 1045) Characters were etched into wet clay, dried, and kiln-fired ARTS During the Song Dynasty, porcelain became as valued as silk White, very hard ceramic Often called “china” Important item for trade Music, poetry, and Landscape painting was Also important! Merit System/Meritocracy The Song brought back Confucius’ system for hiring government officials Officials had to pass tests and prove their ability to do the work Intended to combat nepotism, favoritism on the basis of family relationships The MONGOLS Nomads from the plains of Central Asia Fierce warriors said to “live in the saddle” 1200’s- United under Genghis Khan MONGOLS, cont. Kahns (Mongol rulers) began storming into parts of China, Korea, Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Persian Gulf area and took over! What can you observe about the Mongols’ weapons and technology? Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan Completed conquest of China 1259-1279 fought and overpowered Song dynasty Yuan Dynasty Yuan= “beginnings” Mongols ruled instead of Chinese officials Mongols kept their own language and customs Allowed many religions and visitors from other lands Marco Polo A Christian from Europe Traveled to China from Venice, Italy in 1271 Was hired by Kubilai Kahn to work in China’s government Wrote about China’s palace, efficient mail system, and wellmaintained roads Marco Polo cont’d Stayed 17 years Upon returning to Europe, sparked interest and increase of trade between Europe and China The Last Dynasties The Mongols were good at conquering, but not as good at ruling. A peasant revolt overthrew the Yuan Dynasty and began the Ming Dynasty. The Manchus (another tribe living North of China overthrew the Ming and started the Qing Dynasty. Internal rebellions further weakened China. Emperors became younger and younger. This further weakened the government and strengthened the revolutionaries. His reign lasted from 1909- 1911 A.D., at which point the revolutionaries won and the Republic of China arose. The Republic of China became a communist country and changed it’s name to the People’s Republic of China, which is still goes by today. Review 1) What were some achievements of Tang Taizong? 2) Describe the Mongol rule of China. INDIA: The Later Years 184 BC- 600 AD The Mauryan Empire fell when invaders attacked India. By 600 AD, The GUPTA family managed to reunite India again and make Hinduism the leading religion in the country. The Guptas began a golden age in India Sultan! Muslims began invading India around 1000 AD. In 1206, Sultans (Muslim rulers) began controlling India under what is called the Dehli Sultanate (named after the capital city of India, Dehli) Dehli Sultanate, cont. Many Sultans were cruel to the Hindu population because of their religious differences; temples were looted and Indians were taken as slaves In 1398, Timur, a ruthless Mongol conqueror invaded India. He came from Asiatic Russia (the Asian side) He & conquering horsemen looted and killed, destroying Delhi and killing Hindus. 1526 The Dehli Sultanate officially fell when Babur, a Mongol prince, used cannons to take over. Babur was a Muslim who founded the MUGHAL EMPIRE in India (Mughal is another word for Mongol). Babur Babur’s grandson, Akbar, became the ruler of India at the age of 13. He ruled for nearly 50 years. Akbar expanded the Moghul empire and ran the greatest monarchy in India’s history - Collected fair taxes - Encouraged arts & learning - Was tolerant of all religions - Used the Merit system to hire a civil service (people who do the work of the government) Akbar’s grandson, Shah Jahan, became the emperor of India. He spent much of the empire’s wealth to construct the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife, Mumtaz Muhal Shah Jahan’s son, Aurangzeb, also wasted money on monuments and other construction projects. Plus, he tried to force Hindus to convert to Islam, causing Hindus to rebel When he died in 1707, India became divided and fell easily to European nations looking to colonize Today! Great Britain colonized India and took control of its trade. In 1947, though, India became an independent nation. Around this time, also, much of India’s Muslim population relocated to the Northwestern region of the country, by the Indus River. This region became the country of Pakistan. Bangladesh was also created for Muslims. India is the 2nd most heavily populated country in the world. It is the world’s largest democracy! It has the second fastest growing economy in the world.