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13.1 Golden Ages of China - Clark County School District

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Golden Ages & Invasions!
Asia: The later years
China: The Later Years
Tang Dynasty
Overthrew Sui Dynasty
• Ruled nearly 300 yrs
• Began a GOLDEN AGE!
China grew in area and population
•
•
Tang Taizong




Emperor at 16 yrs. old
Helped his father to
start the Tang dynasty
Ruled from 626-649 AD
Successful general,
scholar, historian, &
calligraphy artist
Tang Taizong cont’d


Was influenced by
Confucius
Initiated land reformgiving more land to
peasants who farmed it
Song Dynasty


Taizu began the dynasty in
960 and ruled until 1279
Advanced the govt by
extending the merit
system- now, to KEEP your
job in the civil service, you
had to perform well!
Taizu
AGRICULTURAL
IMPROVEMENTS
New strains
of rice
&
Better
irrigation
methods
Higher
yields
&
Two
crops
per yr.
FOOD
SURPLUS &
POPULATION
INCREASE!
Song Dynasty Cont.

Some inventions of the
time:
gunpowder as a weapon
smallpox vaccine
magnetic compass
** movable type (A.D.
1045)
Characters were
etched into wet clay,
dried, and kiln-fired
ARTS
During the Song Dynasty, porcelain
became as valued as silk
 White, very hard ceramic
 Often called “china”
 Important item for trade
 Music, poetry, and
Landscape painting was
Also important!

Merit System/Meritocracy



The Song brought back
Confucius’ system for
hiring government
officials
Officials had to pass
tests and prove their
ability to do the work
Intended to combat
nepotism, favoritism on
the basis of family
relationships
The MONGOLS



Nomads from the plains
of Central Asia
Fierce warriors said to
“live in the saddle”
1200’s- United under
Genghis Khan
MONGOLS, cont.

Kahns (Mongol
rulers) began
storming into parts
of China, Korea,
Russia, Eastern
Europe, and the
Persian Gulf area
and took over!
What can you
observe about the
Mongols’ weapons
and technology?
Kublai Khan



Grandson of
Genghis Khan
Completed conquest
of China
1259-1279 fought
and overpowered
Song dynasty
Yuan Dynasty




Yuan= “beginnings”
Mongols ruled instead of
Chinese officials
Mongols kept their own
language and customs
Allowed many religions and
visitors from other lands
Marco Polo




A Christian from Europe
Traveled to China from
Venice, Italy in 1271
Was hired by Kubilai Kahn
to work in China’s
government
Wrote about China’s
palace, efficient mail
system, and wellmaintained roads
Marco Polo cont’d


Stayed 17 years
Upon returning to
Europe, sparked
interest and increase
of trade between
Europe and China
The Last Dynasties





The Mongols were good at conquering, but not as
good at ruling. A peasant revolt overthrew the Yuan
Dynasty and began the Ming Dynasty.
The Manchus (another tribe living North of China
overthrew the Ming and started the Qing Dynasty.
Internal rebellions further weakened China.
Emperors became younger and younger. This further
weakened the government and strengthened the
revolutionaries. His reign lasted from 1909- 1911
A.D., at which point the revolutionaries won and the
Republic of China arose.
The Republic of China became a communist country
and changed it’s name to the People’s Republic of
China, which is still goes by today.
Review
1) What were some
achievements of Tang
Taizong?
2) Describe the Mongol rule of
China.
INDIA:
The Later Years
184 BC- 600 AD



The Mauryan Empire fell
when invaders attacked
India.
By 600 AD, The GUPTA
family managed to
reunite India again and
make Hinduism the
leading religion in the
country.
The Guptas began a
golden age in India
Sultan!


Muslims began invading India
around 1000 AD.
In 1206, Sultans (Muslim rulers)
began controlling India under what
is called the Dehli Sultanate (named
after the capital city of India, Dehli)
Dehli Sultanate, cont.

Many Sultans were
cruel to the Hindu
population because
of their religious
differences; temples
were looted and
Indians were taken
as slaves



In 1398, Timur, a ruthless
Mongol conqueror invaded
India.
He came from Asiatic
Russia (the Asian side)
He & conquering
horsemen looted and
killed, destroying Delhi and
killing Hindus.
1526


The Dehli Sultanate
officially fell when
Babur, a Mongol
prince, used
cannons to take
over.
Babur was a Muslim
who founded the
MUGHAL EMPIRE in
India (Mughal is
another word for
Mongol).
Babur

Babur’s grandson,
Akbar, became the ruler
of India at the age of
13. He ruled for nearly
50 years.

Akbar expanded the Moghul
empire and ran the greatest
monarchy in India’s history
- Collected fair taxes
- Encouraged arts & learning
- Was tolerant of all religions
- Used the Merit system to
hire a civil service (people
who do the work of the
government)


Akbar’s grandson,
Shah Jahan,
became the
emperor of India.
He spent much
of the empire’s
wealth to
construct the Taj
Mahal as a tomb
for his wife,
Mumtaz Muhal


Shah Jahan’s son, Aurangzeb,
also wasted money on
monuments and other
construction projects. Plus, he
tried to force Hindus to
convert to Islam, causing
Hindus to rebel
When he died in 1707, India
became divided and fell easily
to European nations looking to
colonize
Today!


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
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Great Britain colonized India and took control
of its trade.
In 1947, though, India became an independent
nation.
Around this time, also, much of India’s Muslim
population relocated to the Northwestern
region of the country, by the Indus River. This
region became the country of Pakistan.
Bangladesh was also created for Muslims.
India is the 2nd most heavily populated
country in the world.
It is the world’s largest democracy!
It has the second fastest growing economy in
the world.
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