Pick up the papers on the desk by the door. Get out your Pharaoh Eulogy worksheet. Make sure you have paper and a pencil/pen with you so you can move around the room in a few minutes. 23: Egyptian Pharaoh Chart 24: Notes 25: Map 1. Seasonal winds called _____________________ dominate India's climate. 2. What two rivers are associated with the Indus River Valley civilization? 3. Describe how the wet and dry seasons affected life in the Indus River Valley. 4. True or false: We have learned a lot about Indus River culture through their writing system. 5. What indicator of Indus River culture suggests social/social class divisions were not great? 1. Seasonal winds called _____________________ dominate India's climate. Monsoons 2. What two rivers are associated with the Indus River Valley civilization? Indus and Ganges 3. Describe how the wet and dry seasons affected life in the Indus River Valley. Affected crops; too little rain meant crops dried up, too much and floods swept away crops and villages in general 4. True or false: We have learned a lot about Indus River culture through their writing system. False 5. What indicator of Indus River culture suggests social/social class divisions were not great? Uniform housing 1. Reading Check 2. Pharaoh Presentations 3. Notes: Indus River Valley 4. Indus River Valley Map Activity 5. Crash Course Video (time permitting) Homework: Read Hueng He River Valley section in Ch. 2 (Section 4) -- BRING TEXTBOOKS NEXT CLASS!!!! Indus River Valley Harappan Civilization No one is exactly sure how people first got to India! • From Africa by boat? • Through Hindu Kush using mountain passes? What DO we know? • 7000 B.C: Earliest agriculture evidence shows people in India • 3200 B.C.: Evidence of villages around the Indus River Mesopotamia Indus Valley (Sumer’s disadvantages) Unpredictable flooding Unpredictable flooding Monsoon rains No natural defensive barriers Himalaya Mountains (the subcontinent) Supplemented by walls No natural resources Abundant stone and other precious rocks Major Cities: • Harappa (a.k.a. Harappan civilization) • Mohenjo-Daro • Biggest cities = closest to the Indus River Rivers: • Indus River • Ganges River Mountains: • Himalaya Mountains • Hindu-Kush Mountains Ancient India contends with the same weather issues that modern India does. Each winter, strong winds blew dry air across the area. Each spring/summer, the winds brought heavy rains. These seasonal winds (both the hot dry air and moist rain) are called monsoons Polytheistic Priests (belief in many gods) Pottery Sculpture Architecture – purely functional • Neighborhoods were walled, narrow lanes separated houses • Built on GRID SYSTEM **Drainage system Plumbing = common in Mohenjo-Daro • Nearly every house = connected to drainage system Wastewater (bath water and toilet) runs down clay drains • Goes into sewer under the streets • Manhole covers give workers access, just as they do today Such technology not seen elsewhere until the 19th century! Housing = not diverse (even among classes!) • Uniform housing - not much divide between rich and poor Sewage and drainage were available for all • Why? Believed cleanliness was important Few weapons found = probably a peaceful people Organization suggests a strong central government CITADEL Many independent states,. connected through trade and alliance • Many independent states = sounds like what other River Valley civilization? Some type of central government, but not as powerful as in Egypt or in Mesopotamia after Sargon or Babylonian Empire takes over. • BUT: Geography makes it hard for a truly strong central government to exist • Natural boundaries = hinder this because they create borders Agricultural Economy • Wheat, barley, rice, peas Long distance trade with Mesopotamia (barter) • Mesopotamian textiles and food for Harappa copper, precious stones More equality but some stratification Some examples of different classes are: • Landlords who helped to run the cities • Merchant Class • Priests No translation of their writing! We don’t know the language of the Indus people of ancient India Few ruins are left to excavate and examine PROBLEM: We don’t know what happened to them! Our best guess? Around 1750 B.C. the cities began to decline. Why? • The rivers may have moved • The earth may have become overworked • Maybe a natural disaster • Maybe attack/invasion 1. Read Hueng He River Valley (China) section in Ch. 2 (Section 4) and take notes in a style of your choice. 2. BRING TEXTBOOKS NEXT CLASS!!!!