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1. What is the capital city of Mexico?

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Final Exam Review
Fall 2013
Final Exam

1. What is geography?
Final Exam

1. Study of the distribution and
interaction of physical and
human features on the earth
Final Exam

2. What are the five themes of
geography:
Final Exam

2. Location, Place, Movement,
Region, Human-Environment
Interaction
Final Exam

3. Two main branches of
geography:
Final Exam

3. Human and physical
Final Exam

4. Parts of a map:
Final Exam

4. Title, compass, scale, grid,
legend, source, index
Final Exam

5. Most accurate representation
of the earth:
Final Exam

5. globe
Final Exam

6. What is a formal region?
Final Exam

6. a region with a limited
number of related
characteristics. (examples:
United States, Latin America,
Africa)
Final Exam

7. What is a functional region?
Final Exam

7. a region based on
interactions and connections
between places (example:
metropolitan Houston)
Final Exam

8. What is a perceptual region?
Final Exam

8. a region which people see, or
perceive, in the same way
(example: the Midwest)
Final Exam

9. What are map projections?
Final Exam

9. Various ways of showing the
round earth on a flat surface
Final Exam

10. What is the Prime Meridian?
Final Exam

10. 0 degrees longitude
Final Exam

11. What is latitude?
Final Exam

11. Imaginary lines that run east
and west, parallel to the
Equator
Final Exam

12. What is longitude?
Final Exam

12. Imaginary lines that run
north and south over the poles
Final Exam

13. What is a cartographer?
Final Exam

13. mapmaker
Final Exam

14. What is absolute location?
Final Exam

14. Exact location of a place on
earth, expressed in degrees of
latitude and longitude
Final Exam

15. What is relative location?
Final Exam

15. Location of a place on earth
based on where other places
around it are located
16. What is GIS?
Final Exam

16. Geographic Information
Systems – digital database with
information about the earth
used to make highly accurate
maps
Final Exam

17. What is GPS?
Final Exam

17. Global Position System –
using a series of satellites
orbiting the earth to plot one’s
exact position on the earth
Final Exam

18. What is the difference
between political maps and
physical maps?
Final Exam

18. Political maps show
political boundaries while
physical maps show physical
features such as rivers,
mountains, etc.
Final Exam

19. What is a hemisphere?
Final Exam

19. Half of the earth divided by
the Equator or the Prime
Meridian
Final Exam

20. What are thematic maps?
Final Exam

20. Maps that focus on specific
types of information: climate,
vegetation, population density,
etc.
Final Exam

21. Most of the earth (70%) is
covered by___________.
Final Exam

21. water
Final Exam

22. Layers of the earth & their
composition:
Final Exam

22. Inner core – solid metal
outer core – liquid metal
mantle – semi-melted rock
with pockets of magma
crust – solid rock
Final Exam

12. What is the hydrologic
cycle?
Final Exam

12. The movement of all water
elements form the oceans to the
atmosphere back onto the earth
Final Exam

13. What is the biosphere?
Final Exam

13. All living on, above and in
the earth
Final Exam

14. What is the atmosphere?
Final Exam

14. Layer of dust and gases that
surrounds the earth and
protects it from harmful rays of
the sun
Final Exam

15. What is the lithosphere?
Final Exam

15. The crust and uppermost
part of the mantle that makes
up the tectonic plates of the
earth
Final Exam

16. What is continental drift:
Final Exam

16. Theory of Alfred Wegener
that all the continents were
once joined together (Pangaea)
and they drifted apart over time
Final Exam

17. What is a drainage basin?
Final Exam

17. All land drained by a major
river and its tributaries
Final Exam

18. What is Pangaea?
Final Exam

18. Supercontinent that once
existed which broke up over
time due to the movement of
tectonic plates
Final Exam

19. What is relief?
Final Exam

19. Difference between the
highest and lowest points in
elevation of a landform
Final Exam

20. What is the Richter Scale?
Final Exam

20. Unit of measurement used
to measure the relative strength
of an earthquake
Final Exam

21. Define continents:
Final Exam

21. Large landmass above
water on the earth
Final Exam

22. What is a fault?
Final Exam

22. A crack, or fracture of the
earth’s crust
Final Exam

23. Major plate movements
along plate boundaries:
Final Exam

23. Spreading, subduction,
colliding, sliding
Final Exam

24. What is the epicenter?
Final Exam

24. Point directly above the
focus of an earthquake
Final Exam

25. Define orographic
precipitation:
Final Exam

25. Occurs in mountainous
areas on the windward side of a
mountain
Final Exam

25. weather:
Final Exam

25. Condition of the atmosphere
at a particular location and time
Final Exam

25. deciduous trees:
Final Exam

25. Broadleaf trees such as
maple, birch and oak
Final Exam

25. El Nino
Final Exam

25. Weather pattern created by
the warming of the waters off
the west coast of South America
Final Exam

25. equinox:
Final Exam

25. Two times a year when days
and nights all over the earth are
equal
Final Exam

25. solstice:
Final Exam

25. Beginning of winter and
summer in the Northern
Hemisphere
Final Exam

25. permafrost:
Final Exam

25. Permanently frozen soil
beneath the topsoil
Final Exam

25. frontal precipitation:
Final Exam

25. Cold dense air masses push
lighter warm air masses upward
causing precipitation to form
Final Exam

25. steppe:
Final Exam

25. Temperate grassland region
in the Northern Hemisphere
Final Exam

25. frontal precipitation:
Final Exam

25. frontal precipitation:
Final Exam

26. Name the four major
biomes on earth:
Final Exam

26. Grassland, desert, forest,
tundra
Final Exam

27. precipitation
Final Exam

27. All forms of water that fall
from the atmosphere
Final Exam

27. tornado alley
Final Exam

27. Area in the Midwest that has
the greatest number of
tornadoes on earth
Final Exam

28. What is the purpose of the
earth’s winds?
Final Exam

28. To distribute heat
throughout the earth
Final Exam

29. What is the country with
the most tornadoes?
Final Exam

29. The United States
Final Exam

28. What is the purpose of the
earth’s winds?
Final Exam

28. To distribute, or transfer,
heat on the earth
Final Exam

30. What is acculturation?
Final Exam

30. The cultural change that
occurs when individuals in a
society accept or adopt an
innovation
Final Exam

31. What is cultural diffusion?
Final Exam

31. The spread of ideas,
inventions, or patterns of
behavior to different societies
Final Exam

32. What is a dialect?
Final Exam

32. A version of a language that
reflects changes in speech
pattern
Final Exam

33. What is an innovation?
Final Exam

33. Taking existing technology
and creating something new to
meet
Final Exam

34. What is an ethnic group?
Final Exam

34. Group of people who share
a language, customs, and a
common heritage
Final Exam

35. What is the fertility rate?
Final Exam

35. Average number of children
a woman of childbearing years
would have in her lifetime
Final Exam

36. What is the population
density?
Final Exam

36. The average number of
people who live in a measurable
area
Final Exam

37. What are population
pyramids?
Final Exam

37. Graphic device used to look
at a country’s population at a
particular time
Final Exam

38. What is the rate of natural
increase?
Final Exam

38. Rate at which population is
growing:
birthrate – mortality rate = rate
of natural increase
Final Exam

39. What is the infant mortality
rate?
Final Exam

39. Number of deaths among
infants under age one as
measured per thousand live
births
Final Exam

41. What are push-pull factors?
Final Exam

41. Factors that cause people to
leave their homelands and
factors that attract them to
another location
Final Exam

42. What is carrying capacity?
Final Exam

42. Number of organisms a
piece of land can support
Final Exam

43. Define metropolitan area:
Final Exam

43. Functional region including
a city, its suburbs and exurbs
Final Exam

44. What is urbanization?
Final Exam

44. Dramatic rise in the
number of cities worldwide
Final Exam

45. What are the basic land use
patterns found in all cities?
Final Exam

45. Residential, commercial,
industrial
Final Exam

46. What is a market economy?
Final Exam

46. Economic system in which
production of goods & services
is determined by demand from
consumers
Final Exam

47. Define: communism
Final Exam

47. System in which the
government holds nearly all
political and economic power
Final Exam

48. Define: democracy
Final Exam

48. Citizens hold political
power either directly, or
through elected representatives
Final Exam

49. What is a state?
Final Exam

49. Independent unit that
occupies a specific territory and
has full control of its internal
and external affairs
(country)
Final Exam

50. Define: nation
Final Exam

50. Group of people with a
common culture living in a
territory with a string sense of
unity
Final Exam

51. Define: infrastructure
Final Exam

51. Basic support systems
needed to keep an economy
going: power, communications,
transportation, water,
sanitations, education
Final Exam

52. What is a command
economy?
Final Exam

52. Production of goods and
services is determined by a
central government
(planned economy)
Final Exam

53. What are primary,
secondary, tertiary &
quaternary economic activities?
Final Exam

53. Primary – gathering raw materials
secondary - manufacturing
tertiary – business & professional
services
quaternary – information management
& research
Final Exam

54. What are renewable &
nonrenewable resources?
Final Exam

54. renewable – trees and
seafood
nonrenewable resources –
metals, other minerals, fossil
fuels
Final Exam

55. What is a traditional
economy?
Final Exam

55. Goods and services are
traded without exchanging
money
Final Exam

56. Difference between natural
& artificial boundaries:
Final Exam

56. natural boundaries - follow
rivers, mountains, etc.
artificial boundaries – drawn on
a map by humans
Final Exam

57. What are natural resources?
Final Exam

57. What are natural resources?
Final Exam

58. Define: manufacturing
Final Exam

58. Taking raw materials and
natural resources and turning
them into finished goods
Final Exam

59. What are suburbs?
Final Exam

59. Political unit or community
that touches a central city, or is
near the central city
Final Exam

61. U.S. must import this vital
natural resource:
Final Exam

61. Oil and natural gas
Final Exam

62. Great Lakes & the Atlantic
are linked via this shipping
route:
Final Exam

62. St. Lawrence Seaway
Final Exam

63. Climate found in
Houston, TX:
Final Exam

63. Humid subtropical
Final Exam

64. What are the Everglades?
Final Exam

64. Large tropical swampland
in Florida
Final Exam

65. Define the Appalachians:
Final Exam

65. Low-lying mountain chain
in the eastern U,S, and Canada
Final Exam

66. Canada’s longest river:
Final Exam

66. Mackenzie
Final Exam

67. What are locks?
Final Exam

67. Section of a waterway with
closed gates used to raise and
lower water levels for ships to
pass through
Final Exam

68. Define: nomads
Final Exam

68. People with no permanent
home who roam from place to
place
Final Exam

69. Names of the Great Lakes:
Final Exam

69. Huron, Ontario, Michigan,
Erie, Superior
Final Exam

70. Highest mountains in the
U.S. & Canada:
Final Exam

70. Rocky Mts.
Final Exam

71. What is the Continental
Divide?
Final Exam

71. Highest point of the
Rockies that divides rivers
flowing eastward and westward
Final Exam

72. What are provinces?
Final Exam

72. Political units of Canada
Final Exam

73. Define: megalopolis
Final Exam

73. Several large cities grow
together creating as huge urban
region
Final Exam

74. Define: Nunavut
Final Exam

74. Canadian territory carved
out of the Northwest Territories
which is home to many Inuit
Final Exam

75. Negative consequence of
the Louisiana Purchase:
Final Exam

75. Many Native Americans
lost their ancestral lands
Final Exam

76. 4 Subregions of the U.S.:
Final Exam

76. Northeast, South, Midwest,
West
Final Exam

77. Canada’s “breadbasket”:
Final Exam

77. Prairie provinces
Final Exam

78. Core Provinces of Canada:
Final Exam

78. Ontario and Quebec
Final Exam

79. Two official languages of
Canada:
Final Exam

79. English & French
Final Exam

80. Who are the Metis?
Final Exam

80. Canadian people of mixed
French and Native American
heritage
Final Exam

81. Who are the First Nations?
Final Exam

81. Name given to the native
peoples of Canada
Final Exam

82. French-speaking province
of Canada:
Final Exam

82. Quebec
Final Exam

83. Canada’s capital:
Final Exam

83. Ottawa
Final Exam

84. What is the Columbian
Exchange?
Final Exam

84. Movement of plants,
animals, and diseases between
the Eastern and Western
hemispheres
Final Exam

85. Name the Atlantic
Provinces:
Final Exam

85. Newfoundland, New
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and
Prince Edward Island
Final Exam

86. Name the Prairie
Provinces:
Final Exam

86. Saskatchewan, Alberta,
Manitoba
Final Exam

87. Most Canadians live where?
Final Exam

87. In southern part, near the
U.S.-Canadian border
Final Exam

88. What are multinational
corporations?
Final Exam

88. Companies that do
business worldwide
Final Exam

89. Canada’s westernmost
province:
Final Exam

89. British Columbia
Final Exam

90. Where is the Gulf Coastal
Plain?
Final Exam

90. Southeastern U.S. along the
Gulf of Mexico
Final Exam

91. Where are the Rocky
Mountains?
Final Exam

91. In the western U.S., west of
the Great Plains
Final Exam

92. Define: pampas
Final Exam

92. Vast grassland with rich
soil in Argentina and Uruguay
Final Exam

93. What is the Amazon rain
forest?
Final Exam

93. Vast tropical ecosystem
with a a variety of trees, animals
and plants mainly in Brazil
Final Exam

94. What is terrace farming?
Final Exam

94. Growing crops on hillsides
or mountain slopes, using steplike horizontal fields cut into
the slopes
Final Exam

95. What is hydroelectricity?
Final Exam

95. Power created by the force
of falling water
Final Exam

96. Why does Latin America
have a varied climate?
Final Exam

96. Because of its varied
landscape: mountains, plateaus,
deserts and plains
Final Exam

97. Largest country in Latin
America:
Final Exam

97. Brazil
Final Exam

98. Reason why Spanish is the
dominant language in most of
Latin America:
Final Exam

98. It was brought by the
Spanish explorers who
conquered most of the region
Final Exam

99. Reason why coastal areas
of Latin America are densely
populated:
Final Exam

99. Most of the interior is
made up of mountains,
highlands, dense forest and
jungle
Final Exam

100. Define: informal economy
Final Exam

100. Based on barter rather
than the exchange of money
Final Exam

101. Major river systems of
South America:
Final Exam

101. Orinoco, Amazon, and
Parana
Final Exam

102. What are the llanos?
Final Exam

102. Grassy, treeless area in
South America, esp. Venezuela
Final Exam

103. Three majors island
groups of the Caribbean
Final Exam

103. Greater Antilles, Lesser
Antilles, Bahamas
Final Exam

104. Reason for the name
“Latin America”:
Final Exam

104. The main languages of the
region are derived from Latin
Final Exam

105. Mexico is built on top of
what culture?
Final Exam

105. Aztec culture
Final Exam

106. What is an ecosystem?
Final Exam

106. Interdependent
community of plants and
animals
Final Exam

107. Elevation’s effect on crops:
Final Exam

107. Particular crops can only
be grown at certain elevations
in mountainous areas
Final Exam

108. What was the Spanish
conquest?
Final Exam

108. The Spanish, under the
leadership of Hernando Cortes,
defeated the Aztecs of presentday Mexico
Final Exam

109. Define: NAFTA
Final Exam

109. North American Free
Trade Agreement – made trade
between the U.S., Canada and
Mexico much easier
Final Exam

110. Define: cultural hearth
Final Exam

110. A place where cultural
innovations are developed and
them spread
Final Exam

111. Explain the Inca:
Final Exam

111. Advanced civilization that
lived in the Andes in the
vicinity of Peru
Final Exam

112. What is the PRI?
Final Exam

112. Political party that tried
bring reform to Mexico but
ended up controlling the
country for over 70 years
Final Exam

113. Define: maquiladores
Final Exam

113. Factories built on the U.SMexican border that produce
products mainly for the U.S.
Final Exam

114. What is deforestation?
Final Exam

114. Cutting down of trees,
mainly for farmland
Final Exam

115. Why has there been a
movement of Mexicans to the
cities?
Final Exam

115. They go there to seek
better job opportunities and a
better life
Final Exam

116. Most important part of
Mexico’s economy:
Final Exam

116. manufacturing
Final Exam

117. Importance of the Panama
Canal:
Final Exam

117. Links the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans
Final Exam

118. Define: mestizo
Final Exam

118. Person of mixed Spanish
and Native American heritage
Final Exam

119. South America’s economic
success story:
Final Exam

119. Chile
Final Exam

120. Cultural center/ financial
center of Brazil:
Final Exam

120. Rio de Janiero:
Final Exam

121. What was the result of the
Treaty of Tordesillas:
Final Exam

121. Agreement which gave
Portugal control of the land that
became present-day Brazil
Final Exam

122. Main language and
religion of Brazil:
Final Exam

122. Portuguese/ Roman
Catholic
Final Exam

123. What is a debt-for-nature
swap?
Final Exam

123. A government or
organization agrees to remove
an amount of debt of a country
if that country will agree not to
harm some its rain forests
Final Exam

124. Define: biodiversity
Final Exam

124. A wide variety of plant and
animal species
Final Exam

125. A. Define: fjord
Final Exam
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125. U-shaped valley carved out
by glaciers
Final Exam

125. Define: uplands
Final Exam

125. Hills or very low mountains
that may also contain mesas
and high plateaus
Final Exam

125. Define: Meseta
Final Exam

125. Central plateau of Spain
Final Exam

125. Define: Massif Central
Final Exam

125. Uplands of France
Final Exam

125. Define: polder
Final Exam

125. Land that is reclaimed
from the sea
Final Exam

125. Define: mistral
Final Exam

125. Cold, dry wind from the
north existing in Europe
Final Exam

125. Define: peat
Final Exam

125. Partially decayed plant
matter used for fuel
Final Exam

125. Define: Zuider Zee/
Ijsselmeer
Final Exam

125. Arm of the North Sea that
became a freshwater lake
Final Exam

125. Define: seaworks
Final Exam

125. Structures that are used to
control the sea’s destructive
impact on human life
Final Exam

125. Define: terpen
Final Exam

125. Earthen platform built as a
means of protection during
high water and floods
Final Exam

126. Most abundant resources
of Europe:
Final Exam

126. Coal, iron ore, oil, fertile
soil
Final Exam

127. What is the North Atlantic
Drift?
Final Exam

127. Warm tropical water
current that flows near Western
Europe creating a mild climate
Final Exam

128. How have the Dutch
changed the physical
geography of their country?
Final Exam

128. By creating polders and
the Ijssemeer
Final Exam

129. Why were forests chopped
down in Europe?
Final Exam

129. For building homes and
ships
Final Exam

130. Where are major oil fields
located in Europe?
Final Exam

130. North Sea area
Final Exam

131. In which region would you
find citrus fruit growing in
Europe?
Final Exam

131. Mediterranean region
Final Exam

132. Type of vegetation found
in the Scandinavian Peninsula
north of the Arctic Circle:
Final Exam

132. Tundra: lichens and
mosses
Final Exam

133. Europe is one large
peninsula with many others
extending out from it
Final Exam

133. Reason why Europe is
called the “peninsula of
peninsulas”:
Final Exam

134. Agricultural runoff & killer
algae
Final Exam

134. Pollutants found in the
canals of Venice:
Final Exam

135. Reason for Dutch building
seaworks:
Final Exam

135. To protect the
Netherlands from storms and
flooding
Final Exam

137. Which countries make up
the Iberian Peninsula?
Final Exam

137. Spain and Portugal
Final Exam

138. Sulfur emissions + water
vapor = __________
Final Exam

138. Acid rain
Final Exam

139. Dutch created these to
meet the need for growing
population:
Final Exam

139. polders
Final Exam

140. Two resources in Britain
that helped it to industrialize:
Final Exam

140. Coal and iron ore
Final Exam

141. The mistral and sirocco are
both types of_______in
Mediterranean Europe.
Final Exam

141. winds
Final Exam

142. Besides pollution, other
problems faced by Venice,
Italy:
Final Exam

142. Flooding, sinking, killer
algae
Final Exam

143. Type of government in the
Roman Empire:
Final Exam

143. republic
Final Exam

144. French, Spanish, Italian,
Portuguese and Romanian
derived from this Roman
language:
Final Exam

144. Latin
Final Exam

145. After WWII, what
happened to Germany?
Final Exam

145. It was divided into two
countries, one democratic/ one
Communist
Final Exam

146. 1517, Martin Luther
Final Exam

147. What are the Nordic
countries?
Final Exam

147. Iceland, Norway, Sweden,
Finland, Denmark
Final Exam

148. Ideas to come from the
Magna Carta include:
Final Exam

148. Trail by jury, no taxation
without representation
Final Exam

149. Economic activity that has
declined in Mediterranean
Europe:
Final Exam

149. farming
Final Exam

150. Definition and cause of the
Holocaust:
Final Exam

150. Mass extermination of
European Jews caused by antiSemitism and perpetrated by
the Nazis of Germany
Final Exam

151. Where are in Northern
Europe are Protestants &
Catholics still in conflict?
Final Exam

151. Northern Ireland
Final Exam

152. Where is the Silicon Glen
& why is it important?
Final Exam

152. Area of Scotland – between
Glasgow and Edinburgh –
known for its high-tech
companies
Final Exam

153. Negative effects of urban
growth in Mediterranean
Europe:
Final Exam

153. Overcrowding, pollution,
and a strain on the
infrastructure
Final Exam

154. After the Roman Empire
collapsed, which two forms of
Christianity developed?
Final Exam

154. Roman Catholic Church
and the Orthodox Christianity
Final Exam

155. What was ancient Greece’s
impact on the U.S. form of
government:
Final Exam

155. The U.S. based its
democratic form of government
on the democratic ideas of
Athens
Final Exam

156. What was the reason for
the Crusades?
Final Exam

156. To capture the Holy Land
(Palestine) from Muslims
Final Exam

158. 1066 C.E.
Final Exam

158. The Norman Conquest –
when William the Conqueror of
France defeated King John of
England at the Battle of
Hastings
Final Exam

159. Bach, Beethoven &
Mozart came from these
countries:
Final Exam

159. Austria & Germany
Final Exam

160. What was the
Renaissance ?
Final Exam

160. A period of increased
interest in learning and the arts
in Europe between the 14th and
16th centuries
Final Exam

161. What was the purpose of
the Berlin Wall:
Final Exam

161. To divide the Communist
and non-Communist parts of
Berlin
Final Exam

162. Why have the Basques
been a problem in Spain?
Final Exam

162. They want an independent
homeland and they are willing
to use violence to achieve this
Final Exam

163. What is culture?
Final Exam

163. Total of knowledge,
attitudes, and behaviors shared
by and passed on by members
of a group
Final Exam

164. Define: urbanization
Final Exam

164. Dramatic rise in the
number of cites worldwide
Final Exam

167. What is the St. Lawrence
seaway?
Final Exam

167. North America's most
important deepwater ship route,
connecting the Great Lakes to
the Atlantic Ocean
Final Exam

168. Where is Canada’s
population concentrated?
Final Exam

168. Near the southern border
of Canada near the U.S.Canadian border
Final Exam

169. cultural similarities
between Canada & the U.S.?
Final Exam

169. Both are mainly Englishspeaking, Christian and AngloSaxon
Final Exam

170. What are the tectonic
plates?
Final Exam

170. Enormous moving slabs of
the lithosphere that form the
earth’s crust
Final Exam

171. What is a seismograph?
Final Exam

171. Device that measure the
size of waves created by an
earthquake
Final Exam

172. What is the Ring of Fire?
Final Exam

172. Chain of volcanoes that
lines the Pacific Rim; also
known for many earthquakes
Final Exam

173. List the two types of
weathering:
Final Exam

173. Physical and chemical
Final Exam

174. Define: glaciers
Final Exam

174. Slow-moving rivers of ice
that can sculpt the landscape
Final Exam

175. What are moraines?
Final Exam

175. Ridge of rocks left behind
by a glacier
Final Exam

176. What is a delta?
Final Exam

176. Triangular landform that
builds up at the mouth of a river
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