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1. IMMIGRATION

IntégréTéléchargement
3. USA, 1918-1968
5 essays to learn BUT only
1 to write in the exam
Issue 1
An Evaluation Of The Reasons For
Changing Attitudes To Immigration
Factor 1: Prejudice And
Racism
Factor 2: Isolationism & The
First World War
Factor 3: Economic Fear
Factor 4: Social Fear
Factor 5: Fear Of Revolution
AIMS OF ESSAY:
To understand why
hostility towards
immigration grew in
the USA
To explain why the
American public
supported
immigration
restriction
PAST EXAM QUESTIONS
• Did not come up 2015
• How important was fear of revolution (5) as a
reason for changing attitudes towards immigration
in the 1920s? (2014)
• To what extent was racism (1) the main reason for
changing attitudes towards immigration in the
1920s? (2011)
• To what extent does a fear of Communism (5)
explain the changes in American policy towards
immigration in the 1920s? (2010)
IMMIGRATION ESSAY PLAN
Introduction
• Factor 1: Prejudice And Racism
• Factor 2: Isolationism & The First
World War
• Factor 3: Economic Fear
• Factor 4: Social Fear
• Factor 5: Fear Of Revolution
Conclusion
Remember
that this is an
ISOLATED
factor
question
Start essay
with factor
that is in the
question!
General Introduction:
North America has always been a refuge for those in
search of a better life; the United States is thus a
nation built upon the foundations of immigration
Immigrants seeking the ‘American Dream’ were for
many years the nation’s lifeblood – many came over
were skilled and willing to work
However by the 1920s fears over immigration had
become so strong that the ‘open door’ of America
slammed shut…
WHY???
PLAN FOR PARAGRAPH 1
Racism & Prejudice Changing Attitudes
1. Start with an Opening Argument e.g. state what the link is between the
isolated factor & the question
2. Put in Knowledge – discuss the change from old to new immigrants (how
did they differ?)
3. Put in Analysis – argue that this changed attitudes to immigration
because… (What did the Dillingham Commission show? Why did the old
immigrants worry? What grew because of this)
4. Knowledge – discuss that the change in attitude resulted in antiimmigration acts such as…
5. Analysis – explain how these acts show that racism was behind
changing attitudes towards immigration (think percentages)
6. Evaluation – sum up why this is an important factor in explaining why
attitudes changed toward immigration
Example Paragraph
Read Through Paragraph 1 On Handout
Old Immigrants: WASPs!
Until the middle of the nineteenth century, most immigrants came
from Northern Europe, in particular Britain, Ireland, Germany &
Scandinavia
The descendents of these ‘old immigrants’ were generally White,
Anglo-Saxon, Protestants and became known as WASPs
They viewed themselves as ‘natives’ and thus better than other
Americans and immigrants
The Dillingham Commission
From 1900-1920, the numbers of these immigrants soared
The Dillingham Commission, began its work in 1907 and concluded that from the
1890s onwards, immigrants had come mainly from Southern and Eastern
Europe
It was claimed that immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe posed a
serious threat to American society and culture and should therefore be
greatly reduced
The commission's overall
findings provided the
rationale for the politically
and economically inspired
immigration restriction
acts of the 1920s, which
favoured immigration
from northern and
western Europe
Away with
you beggars!
The New Immigrants
These ‘new immigrants’ were from Southern and Eastern Europe
(Russia, Poland & Italy) where people tended to be poorer (escaping
poverty; persecution; unemployment) and of a different religion to the
WASP countries
They also stood out as they stuck together; wore native dress & spoke
their own languages. The WASPs were not happy as they feared that
their culture would be replaced!
Problem One:
Religious Antagonism: Catholicism
Before 1830 the USA had been almost exclusively Protestant but by
1860 the number of Catholics exceeded 3 million which was one
tenth of the population!
A significant proportion of immigrants were Roman Catholic – Irish,
Italians and Hispanics
The attachment to Catholicism generated
cohesion among Irish Americans and
American protestants
IRISH
Irish immigrants were confronted with
demeaning stereotypes and violent antiCatholic PREJUDICES as WASPs commonly
assumed that the Irish were ignorant,
filthy, clannish people incapable of
integration
Problem Two:
Religious Antagonism: Anti-Semitism
By 1913 there were 1.25 million Jews in New
York’s city’s lower east side and were nicknamed ‘Kikes’
Hostility was directed against Jewish immigrants
particularly those who, once they had settled,
became successful and prosperous
Even Henry ford bought a local newspaper and
used it as a vehicle for attacking Jews
The articles in Ford's newspaper blamed the Jews
for everything from the Bolshevik Revolution
to bootlegged liquor. They also accused the
Jews of conspiring to enslave Christianity and
destroy the "Anglo-Saxon" way of life
Jews suffered discrimination in employment and
became targets for the KKK
New Immigrants Were..
• It was easy to see the immigrants as being ‘different’
• Many were ROMAN CATHOLIC or JEWISH (not protestant)
• Many had left non-democratic societies & mistrusted the
government (this was seen as a threat to American Constitution)
• Their physical appearance frightened native-born Americans
(different language & dress)
Old
Immigrants
New
Immigrants
‘Native’ Americans
WASPs
Illiterate and more
appeared so as they
could not speak English
Celtic , Anglo-Saxon,
Nordic races
Protestant
Old Immigrants
Slavic and Latin races
Jewish and Catholic
Unfamiliar with
democracy. They were
communist, socialist and
anarchists
…and because of this they were an
easy target for ill informed
prejudice and racism by ‘native’
Americans
Nativism Grew…
The effect of high levels of immigration
increased the WASPs sense of superiority and
their determination to maintain racial “purity”
Academics and some politicians even claimed to
have ‘scientific’ evidence that the new
immigrants from Southeast Europe were
racially inferior
In Woodrow Wilson’s History of the American
People in 1902, he even compared the ‘men
of the sturdy stock of the north of
Europe’ with the ‘more sordid and hopeless
elements.’
This Clearly Shows That Bigotry, Prejudice
And Racism Gave Rise To The Soon To Be
They were afraid that new immigrants would
Passed Anti-immigration Legislation
destroy American culture and many activists
were pledged to protect the purity of the
American ideal...
Nativist Organisations
The KKK
•
Had died out in 1870s but reformed in Georgia in
1915
•
In true nativist tradition it focused on the evils of
Catholicism and anti-Semitic propaganda
•
The KKK naturally appealed to the WASPs who
believed that their dream of America was about to
be shattered
•
By 1924 the KKK were openly parading through the
streets of Washington D.C. These Groups Are
•
Evans spoke out against
the “vast horde of
immigrants who have
reached our
shores…Italian
immigrants, Irish
catholic malcontents,
Russian Jews, Finns,
Letts, Lithuanians of
the lowest class”
A Real Reflection
Of The Extent Of Anti-alienism In
The Klan’s appeal spread from the south to the
The USA At The Time
western and northern states, where Catholics and
Jews, as well as blacks became the target of
their threats and violence
Hiram Wesley Evans
Perhaps the most obvious example that shows just how
important PREJUDICE AND RACISM was in the changing
attitudes towards immigration can be shown through the
passing of 2 Acts:
1. The Emergency Immigration
Act 1921
This Quota Act was designed to restrict new
immigrants.
This law imposed an annual limit on immigration from
any European country, limiting to 3% of the number
of nationals from that country who were living in the
USA in 1911.
This favoured immigrants from ‘Old Immigrant’
countries and kept out ‘New Immigrants’.
2. National Origins Act 1924
The proportion from each country was lowered to 2%
based on the sizes of national groups at the time of the
1890 census
In 1929 only 120,000 immigrants a year were allowed into
the USA and 85% of all places were reserved for
Northern and Western Europe.
All this information proves that
it was not necessarily the
number of immigrants coming in
that America’s objected to, but
where they came from, making
racism & prejudice a very
important factor!
OPENING ARGUMENT
It can be argued that prejudiced
and racist views towards new
immigrants was a key factor
behind changing attitudes
towards immigration in the USA.
PREJUDICE AND RACISM
KNOWLEDGE 1
•
•
Who were the Old
Immigrants & why
were they
welcomed?
Why type of
immigrant came
from 1880’s+
ARGUMENT 1
• ‘It can be argued that is
important because…
• What did this make the
‘old’ immigrants feel?
• What was set up
because of this?
• What did it make them
want to do/get passed?
PREJUDICE AND RACISM
KNOWLEDGE 2
• Anti-immigration
laws showed a clear
sign of what?
• KU about the 2
Acts:
• 1921 Emergency
Immigration Acts
• 1924 National
Origins Act
ARGUMENT 2
• This clearly shows…
• Not necessarily the no. of
immigrants coming in that
they objected to, but…
what?
• How did the laws do this?
(what has the percentage
got to do with it?)
PREJUDICE AND RACISM
Evaluation
• Prejudice and racism is thus one of the
most important factors in changing
attitudes towards immigration as it
resulted in what happening/a cut in the
number of what from where?
PLAN FOR PARAGRAPH 1
Racism & Prejudice Changing Attitudes
1.
Put in Knowledge – discuss the change from old to new immigrants
(how did they differ?)
2. Put in Analysis – argue that this changed attitudes to immigration
because… (What did the Dillingham Commission show? Why did the old
immigrants worry? What grew because of this)
3.
Knowledge – discuss that the change in attitude resulted in antiimmigration acts such as…
4. Analysis – explain how these acts show that racism was behind
changing attitudes towards immigration (think percentages)
PLAN FOR PARAGRAPH 1
Racism & Prejudice Changing Attitudes
1. Start with an Opening Argument e.g. state what the link is between the
isolated factor & the question
2. Put in Knowledge – discuss the change from old to new immigrants (how
did they differ?)
3. Put in Analysis – argue that this changed attitudes to immigration
because… (What did the Dillingham Commission show? Why did the old
immigrants worry? What grew because of this)
4. Knowledge – discuss that the change in attitude resulted in antiimmigration acts such as…
5. Analysis – explain how these acts show that racism was behind
changing attitudes towards immigration (think percentages)
6. Evaluation – sum up why this is an important factor in explaining why
attitudes changed toward immigration
Example Paragraph
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