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BELLWORK

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BELLWORK
Today, we are going to focus on Medieval Mesoamerica
and the three civilizations that dominated the region:
Maya, Inca & Aztec.
Read pgs. 90-91 and answer the following:
Describe the background of Mayan civilization (when,
where, peak, city-states, etc.)
Explain the Mayan religion. How did they worship their
gods?
What advances did the Mayans make in science?
What advances did the Mayans make in writing?
Why did Mayan civilization collapse?
2012 Phenomenon
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•
12/21/12 is regarded as the end-date of a
5,125 year long cycle in the Mayan Long Count
Calendar.
Others suggest that the 2012 date marks the
end of the world or a similar catastrophe.
Scenarios suggested for the end of the world
include the arrival of a solar maximum, or
Earth's collision with an object such as a black
hole, a passing asteroid, or a planet called
“Nibiru”
Professional Mayan scholars state that
predictions of collapse are NOT found in any of
the classic Mayan accounts, and that the idea
that the Long Count Calendar “ends” in 2012
“misrepresents Mayan history and culture.”
Most historians believe that this date marks the
end of an era, and the beginning of a new one
Long Count
Julian Calendar correlation
13.0.0.0.0
August 11, 3114 BCE
1.0.0.0.0
November 13, 2720 BCE
2.0.0.0.0
February 16, 2325 BCE
3.0.0.0.0
May 21, 1931 BCE
4.0.0.0.0
August 23, 1537 BCE
5.0.0.0.0
November 26, 1143 BCE
6.0.0.0.0
February 28, 748 BCE
7.0.0.0.0
June 3, 354 BCE
8.0.0.0.0
September 5, 41 CE
9.0.0.0.0
December 9, 435
10.0.0.0.0
March 13, 830
11.0.0.0.0
June 15, 1224
12.0.0.0.0
September 18, 1618
13.0.0.0.0
December 21, 2012
14.0.0.0.0
March 26, 2407
15.0.0.0.0
June 28, 2801
16.0.0.0.0
October 1, 3195
17.0.0.0.0
January 3, 3590
18.0.0.0.0
April 7, 3984
19.0.0.0.0
July 11, 4378
Ruins in Telum, Mexico
Ruins in
Coba,
Mexico
(Cancun)
Native American Empires
• The Mayan collapse started in the 900’s AD,
but by 1300, there was no trace left.
• From the 1300s to the 1500s, two powerful
civilizations ruled areas of Mexico, Central &
South America:
• The Aztec and Inca
• Both were late-comers to power, but within 200
years they transformed themselves into huge
empires.
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•
•
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•
In your notes, create
a chart for the two
civilizations.
One half of the class
will read about the
Aztec – pgs. 164165
The other half of the
class will read about
the Inca – pgs. 165166
As you read,
complete your
portion of the chart.
Be ready to discuss!
Aztec vs. Inca
Aztec
Rise to Power
Describe Empire
Gov. & Society
Religion
Decline
Inca
Aztec
• Ancient civilization made up of nomadic hunters and warriors
who migrated into central Mexico in 1200s.
• Capital – Tenochtitlan
• Their capital was an agricultural center and marketplace
(caused increase in population)
• Used chinampas: artificial islands for farming
• A network of canals and bridges connected the mainland with
the capital city.
• At the center of Tenochtitlan, the Aztec built impressive
pyramids, temples, and palaces.
Aztec
• The Aztec expanded their empire by making good
alliances and conquering rivals.
• Their civilization was organized as a hierarchy:
divisions based on authority.
– Emperor, nobility, commoners, serfs, and slaves
• Religion was the most important: believed sacrifices
made the gods happy.
• Aztec civilization ended when Spanish forces invaded
and conquered their land in 1521.
Inca
• The Inca began as a small tribe competing
for fertile land in the Andes.
• Established Cuzco as their capital
• In 1438, Pachacuti came to power.
• He expanded the borders to include Peru,
Chile, and parts of Ecuador, Bolivia, and
Argentina.
Inca
• Pachacuti created a strong central government that
allowed local rulers to control territories.
• Established an imperial language called Quechua.
• The Inca emperor regulated the lives of common
people.
• The Inca believed in many gods and had a variety of
ceremonies to please them (human, animal, food
sacrifices)
• Inca civilization ended with the Spanish conquering
South America in 1531.
Review
• How are the Aztec and Inca similar?
• How are the Aztec and Inca different?
Unit 2 Review Game
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