A COUNTRY OF A GREAT VARIETY AND BIG CONTRASTS eTwinning Project Year 2008 China at a Glance • Location: eastern part of Asia+Pacific Ocean • Neighbouring Countries:15+ 6 across the sea • Seas – Bohai, Yellow, East and South China • Area: 9.6 million square kms • The world’s third largest behind Russia and Canada • Topography – varied and complicated: plains, basins, deserts, grasslands, highlands, mountain ranges (two-thirds of the country) •1500 rivers; many harbours and beaches Hainan Island • 5000 Islands – the largest Taiwan followed by Hainan One of the Oldest Civilisations Pekin Man Emperor 1.7 million years ago – earliest discovery of hominid 500 000 years ago -- Pekin Man – ancestor of humankind (Primitive Society) 21st century BC – founding of the first Dynasty Xia (Slave Society) It started 2 millennia of feudal monarchical system In all, 19 dynasties ruled over China until Opium War of 1840 (semi-colonial country) 1911 – Democratic Revolution 1949 – establishment of the People’s Republic of China Ruler: Communist Party Socialist market economic system – 2 trends: - state - socialist - capitalist Mao Tse Tung Chinese were the first to invent many things: • Match the names of the inventions with the pictures on the further pages: • Guess which was the first and last invention: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Paper Money Umbrella Kite Ink Chess Chopsticks Parachute Chinese Porcelain Cross-bow Draughters/checkers 11)Wheelbarrows 12)Paper 13) Brandy 14) Gunpowder 15) Fire Arrows 16) Matches 17) Compass 18) Stone Playing Cards 19) Fishing Rod Reel 20) Golf a b c q ? t f s m l e p o n d k r j i g h THE BEST IN THE WORLD • the largest dam – Three Gorge Dam on the Jangzy River – 185 m • the highest railway in Tibet – 1972 km within 26 hrs • the longest transocean bridge in Hangzhou Bay • the highest building in Shanghaj • the fastest train Maglev reaching the speed of 431 km/h (Magnetic Levitation) - with the help of German engineers • sending a human being into Outer Space after the USA and Russia • plans to launch space probe into the Moon • the best experts in acupuncture and reflexology However, different approach to author’s rights – piracy Symbols of China China is usually associated with: Paper cutouts Jade…more Main Symbol Dragon Phoenix Bamboo Magpie Stone Lions Fengshui Acupuncture… more Lotus position C h i n e s e C a l e n d a r R e d P a c k e t e n v e l o p e i n More UNESCO Word Heritage List – 29 Sights 1. Chinese Wall 8. M. R.Temples with gardens – Chengde the largest imperial park in China 2. Forbidden City 3. Pekin Man Site 9. Eastern Tombs of the Quing Dynasty 4. Summer Palace 10. Western Tombs of Q.D. 5. Temple of Heaven 11. Yungang Grottoes in Mount Wuzhou, Datong City 6. Ming Tombs (Pekin Area) – Mausoleum of 13 emperors (14-17th cent..– Ming Dynasty) 7. Mountain Resort – Summer Residence of Quing Dynasty (17 -20th cent.) built 90 years 12.Changhbai Mountain Nature Reserve in Jillin Province (mammoth natural zoo and botanical garden is a partof UNESCO’s MAN AND BIOSPHERE PROGRM) 13. Classical Gardens of Suzhou – Venice of East 22. Mount Emei 23. Huanglong areas called Fairlyland 14. Mausoleum of the Ming Dynasty founder with sacred way („Avenue of Ghosts”) 15. Mount Wuyi 24. Three Parallel Rivers – National Park in Yunnan province 25. Potala Palace in Tibet 26. Norbulinka – Dalajlama Summer Residence – Tibet 18. Dazu Rock Carvings 27. Johhong Monastery – Tibet 19. Giant Buddha in Leshan 28. Mausoleum of Terra-cotta Warriars and Emperor Qin 29. Caves of thousand BuddhasMogao Grottoes close to the Yellow River 16. Longmen Grottoes 17. Wulingyan Scenic Area 20. Irrigation project - Sichuan 21. Jiuzhaigou Valley Breathtaking Views Heavenly Lake Bay of Yellow River Tiger Back Rice Terraces Huanglong Scenic Area Kanas Lake Mountain Resort A Wide Choice of rickshaw River boat (barge) saipan Litter / Sedan chair Transport Means Various Architectural Styles Powerful Position in the World – Host to Olympic Games August 2008 The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad is a Summer Olympics event, that will be held in Beijing, People's Republic of China from August 8 to August 24, 2008 and followed by the 2008 Summer Paralympics from September 6 to September 17. 10,500 athletes are expected to compete in 302 events in 28 sports, just one event more than was on the schedule of the 2004 games. The official logo of the games, titled "Dancing Beijing," features a stylised calligraphic character jīng (京, meaning capital), referencing the host city. The mascots of Beijing 2008 are the five Fuwa - Dolls of blessing, each representing both a colour of the Olympic rings and a symbol of Chinese culture. The Olympic slogan, One World, One Dream, calls upon the world to unite in theOlympic spirit.[ Tradition mixed with Contemporary Style Outback vs Metropolitan Aglomerations Dilapidated and Chrome-glass Modern Buildings Rich Country of Poor People Be servant to society! Never ask your country what it can give you, Rather think how You can contribute to its wealth! Social and economic indicators have improved since reforms were launched, but rising inequality is evident between the more highly developed coastal provinces and the less developed, poorer inland regions. According to World Bank estimates, around 300 million people in China in 2007 — mostly in rural areas of the lagging inland provinces — still live in poverty, on consumption of less than $ 1 a day (roughly the size of the United States population). 41 milliarders live in China About 47% of the Chinese population lives under $2 a day. and Hongkong „Let’s leave China in sleep because when it wakes up, it will shake the world” - Napoleon Bonaparte – • • • • The People's Republic of China has the second largest economy in the world after the US with a GDP of over $7 trillion (2007). China's economy grew at an average rate of 10% per year during the period 1990-2004, the highest growth rate in the world. China's total trade in 2006 surpassed $1.76 trillion, making China the world's third-largest trading nation after the U.S. China is the world's largest producer of rice and is among the principal sources of wheat (1st place), corn (maize)(2nd), tobacco (1st place), tea (second after India) soybeans, peanuts, and cotton (1st place). The country is one of the world's largest producers of a number of industrial and mineral products, including cotton cloth, tungsten (wolfram -1st place), and antimony (antymon- 40% of the world output), and is an important producer of cotton yarn, coal (1st place), crude oil, and a number of other products ( rock salt –2nd place; sea fishing – 2nd place; nitrogen fertilizers -1st place.) • Its mineral resources are probably among the richest in the world but are only partially developed; Employment Problems In 2003, the total urban and rural employed population reached 744.32 million By the end of 2003, the registered unemployment rate in the urban areas was 4.3 percent, and the number of registered jobless urbanites was eight million. China has a very prominent problem of employment as it has a large working-age population whose average educational level is relatively low. Because of the continuing shift away from stateowned enterprises toward the expansion of private industry,small and medium-sized companies offer the best opportunities for employment. Employment is particularly plentiful in sectors with manpower shortages such as the agricultural, construction and building, engineering, hotel and service, IT, shipbuilding, oil and mining, and textile industries. There is high demand for such skills as strong , management leadership, and an ability to build and train teams in key functional areas such as sales, project management, marketing, IT consulting and applications implementation and enterprise system integration. AverageWages Poor & Wealthy Citizens Public Lavatories vs Toilets in Exclusive Restaurants Squat type Toilet in Tybet - Typical Toilets - Cleaning in Streets vs Rundown& Gloomy Blocks of Flats Behind bars Travelling by Train or Motorbike Never throw out the ticket before leaving the train station. TRAFFIC • Nobody fastens seat belts • Foreigners are forbidden to drive a car, they can hire an automobile with a driver. • Automatic buying tickets on the bus, by putting small coins into special machines. Ignoring Traffic Lights Drivers who turn right don’t give way to those on the pedestrian crossing Morning Rituals wearing pyjamas in streets doing the washing outside High Fines for Smoking in Public Places (outside) There are no zones for smokers Smoking in restaurants is common Real Estate Belongs to the State Land is not personal property, so it’s easier to move inhabitants to other areas – thus the progress of construction work is . faster UNTYPICAL PUBLIC HOLIDAYS • 11th day of each month is announced: ”Day without squeezing through crowds” Language Intricacies: English - Chinese Greetings How are you? = (in Chinese) Have you eaten breakfast yet? Thanks, I’m OK = I’ve had breakfast THRILL OF GAMBLING Crickets are admired for their sounds, intelligence, and competitiveness. In the past people used to watch them to admire their spirit of fight. That’s why cricket fighting became a popular game and sport for all people, from adults to children. During certain periods of the Qing dynasty, cricket fighting was relegated to a national sport. Lower classes placed emphasis on gambling. Most of them were experienced in the specifics of collecting, rearing, caring for, and fighting the crickets. WEIRD HOBBY – CRICKET FIGHTING Cricket fighting is wide spread although mainly found in the large cities of Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong. There are cricket fighting clubs and societies that cater to members interest at all levels of intensity. With the migration of Chinese to other parts of the world, cricket fighting can be found in New York and Philadelphia, although the species used differ. CONCLUSION WORLD IS FULL OF CONTRASTS NO MATTER IN WHICH PART OF GLOBE WE LIVE. IT’S WORTH CONSIDERING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN OUR EUROPEAN AND ASIAN ATTITUDES TO LIFE TO BE WELL PREPARED FOR INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE USEFUL PHRASES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Establishment Property Announce Competitiveness Differ Discrepancy Potent Embodiment of grace Longitude Depict Sequence Assign tasks Foster Real estate Enhance the look Resemble a lotus - system społeczny, władza. - własność - ogłosić, oznajmić, zawiadomić - konkurencyjność, zdolność konkurowania - różnić się - rozbieżność, sprzeczność, niezgodność - silny, mocny, potężny - uosobienie wdzięku - długość geograficzna - opisać, zobrazować - kolejność wypadków, następstwo - przydzielić zadania, wyznaczyć kogoś; - wspierać, promować - nieruchomość - polepszyć wygląd - przypominać wyglądem kwiat lotosu Authors: Katarzyna Antoń Danuta Mirońska European Club I liceum Ogolnoksztalcace Mielec Poland Source: Personal observations & photos, Pascal Guidebook about China, Internet The Chinese dragon or Oriental dragon is a mythical creature in East Asian culture with a Chinese origin. It is visualized as a long, scaled, snake-like creature with five claws. In contrast to the European dragon which stands on four legs and which is usually portrayed as evil, the Chinese dragon has long been a potent symbol of auspicious power in Chinese folklore and art. It is traditionally also the embodiment of the concept of yang (male) and associated with the weather as the bringer of rain and water in an agriculturally water-driven nation. Firstly, the dragon was historically the symbol of the Emperor of China . Nowadays dragon is sometimes used in the West as a national emblem of China, however the giant panda is far more often used within China as a national emblem than the dragon. "Hoping one's son will become a dragon i.e. be as successful and powerful as a dragon. Chinese Phoenix - the Fenghuang has very positive connotations. It is a symbol of high virtue and grace. The Fenghuang also symbolizes the union of yin and yang. It appears in peaceful and prosperous times but hides when trouble is near. In ancient China, they can often be found in the decorations for weddings or royalty, along with dragons. This is because the Chinese considered the dragon and phoenix symbolic of blissful relations between husband and wife, another common yin and yang metaphor. Decorative paper cut outs - are hanged as decorative enhancements and also as traditional practice to bring in good luck, good fortune and happiness. Each picture is carved from special, tissue-thin rice paper, then hand-painted with bright Chinese ink. They are used like modern day gift ribbons to enhance the look of a gift, a dowry or sacrificial offering. The history of jade is as long as the Chinese civilization. Archaeologists have found jade objects from the early Neolithic period (about 5000 BC). Jade is generally classified into soft jade (nephrite) and hard jade (jadeite). Since China only had the soft jade until jadeite was imported from Burma during the Qing dynasty (1271-1368), it’s called traditional jade. Magpie is a symbol of happiness in Chinese culture. The singing of a magpie foretells happiness and good luck. That's why it is called 'Happy Magpie' and regarded as a sacred bird. Stone LIONS - the lion was regarded as the king in the animal world so its imagines represented power and prestige whereas the ball played by the male lion symbolized the unity of the empire. In the Buddhist faith the lion is considered a divine animal of nobleness and dignity, which can protect the Truth and keep off evils. is simply a red envelope with money in it, often decorated with lucky symnols. It’s handed out to younger generation by their parents, grandparents, relatives, and even close neighbors and friends during Chinese New Year or as gifts for weddings and birthdays. Nowadays giving red packets as a bonus at the yearend by employers becomes popular. A Red Packet The Chinese Zodiac calendar depicting 12 animals is based on exact astronomical observations of the longitude of the sun and the phases of the moon. The Twelve animals representing the twelve Earthly Branches are, in order, the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep (or goat), monkey, rooster, dog, and pig (or boar). A legend explains the sequence in which the animals were assigned. Feng Shui is the ancient Chinese art for homes and businesses, interior design and decorating, related to the law and order of the universe and the power of nature. It was first developed some 6,000 years ago. It's a system based on the elements of astronomy, astrology, geology, physics, mathematics, philosophy, psychology and intuition. Through the knowledge of Feng Shui, people are believed to be able to make themselves more compatible with nature, their surroundings and their own everyday life, so that they can make an impact on their finances, health, and emotions. The Chinese term 'Feng Shui' simply means 'Wind and Water ”. Chinese Medicine and Plants - nearly 5,000 species of plants are used for medicine in China today The lotus position is a cross-legged sitting position which originated in representations and meditative practices of Hinduism. It is an established part of the Hindu Yoga tradition. The position is said to resemble a lotus, encourage proper breathing and foster physical stability. Famous depictions of the lotus-posture include Shiva, the meditating ascetic god of Hinduism, and the Buddha, the founder of Biddhism. Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medical technique for unblocking (ch'i or qi) by inserting needles at particular points on the body to balance the opposing forces of yin and yang. Chi is an energy that allegedly permeates all things. It is believed to flow through the body along 12 main pathways called meridians. When yin and yang are in harmony, chi flows freely within the body and a person is healthy. When a person is sick, diseased, or injured, there is an obstruction of chi along one of the meridians. Traditional Chinese medicine has identified some 500 specific points where needles are to be inserted for specific effects. Acupuncture has been practiced in China for more than 2,000 years (though some think it has been around for 4,000 years).