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C# and .NET

C# and .NET
.NET Architecture
Compiling and running code that targets .NET
Advantages of Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL)
Value and Reference Types
Data Typing
Understanding error handling and attributes
Assemblies, .NET base classes, and namespaces
The Relationship of C# to .NET
 C# is always used within the .NET Framework, hence:
The architecture and methodologies of C# reflect the underlying methodologies of .NET
In many cases, specific language features of C# depend on features of .NET or the .NET base
 Because of this dependence: Understanding of he architecture and methodology of .NET is
required prior to C# programming.
C# Programming
Specifically designed for .NET
Language is based on present day understanding of design methodologies and Object
oriented Principles
Must understand .NET framework in order to develop applications in C# effectively.
The Common Language Runtime
CLR (Common Language Runtime) is central to understanding C#
Commonly CLR is often termed managed code.
Compilation of C# (and many other languages) occurs in two steps:
Compilation of source code to so called Intermediate Langue (IL)
Compilation of IL to platform-specific code by CLR.
Support for Object Orientation and
.NET implementation has practical limitations
IL (Intermediate Language) uses a single implementation inheritance of classes.
Working with .NET implies compiling to IL
This in turn means usage of object oriented-programming methodologies
Object Oriented Programming is not sufficient to give you interoperability (e.g., C++ and Java are
not interoperable in spite of using the same object oriented programing paradigm).
Language Interoperability
So what is exactly language interoperability?
 Initially through COM
 used to interface various modules of different languages
 allowing them to communicate with each other, and/or
 instantiate each others modules,
 In no way did COM
components written in different languages directly communicate with each other, and/or
Instantiate each others modules
=> this was done only through COM intermediation.
In addition COM architecture did not permit implementation inheritance => loss of many Object Oriented Programming features
Debugging requires each component to be debugged independently,
It was not possible to step between languages in the debugger,
Language Interoperability means that classes written in one language were able to directly invoke
classes written in another language.
This was achieved in .NET with IL!
Distinct Value and Reference Types
Strong Distinction between:
 Value:
 variables directly stores its data,
 Typically stored on the “stack,”
 Reference:
 variables that store the address at which the corresponding data can be found
 Located in are of memory know as “managed heap”
Strong Data Typing
IL is based on “Exceptionally Strong Data Typing”.
Gaines afforded by of enforcing this feature outweighs the performance losses:
Language Interoperability
Garbage Collection
Application Domains: Designed to ease the overhead involved when
 Running application that need to be isolated from each other, but
 Need to communicate with each other.
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