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Chapter 3: English Language Development: Issues

IntégréTéléchargement
Tony Mora
Karla Groth
Region 9 COE leads
October 7, 2010
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
A discussion of the linguistic challenges faced by
adolescent English learners
An overview of the diversity among English learners
in grades 6-12 & standards-based English
proficiency levels
A rationale for instructed ELD in the secondary
context
An analysis of common course placements for
adolescent English learners & the potential
shortcomings of these placements
A model for Instructed ELD in the secondary school
context.
I.
Complex linguistic knowledge
(p. 153)
6 Aspects:






Phonology
Morphology
Vocabulary
Syntax
Formal & Informal Discourse Styles
Academic & Social Functions
II.
Academic English

The ability to apply general word knowledge differently to
a variety of subject areas
Gaps in Language Proficiency
III.

Many English learners develop oral fluency for “face to face
communication,” but cannot perform task that require
academic language proficiency
Adolescent English Learners come with a range of
experiences
I. Literacy and content knowledge in the primary
language
II. Previous experience in America Schools
III. English language knowledge
 A “one-size fits all” approach will not work &
particular attention needs to be paid to Long
Term EL’s (p. 157)
I.
II.
III.
Adolescent English learners must have a
competent second language base if they are to
be successful in standards-based course work
To reach grade level standards, EL’s need a
comprehensive approach which means “…explicit
English language instruction through out the
day.”
Instructional this would include English as its
own content (ELD) supported by “…targeted
academic English instruction across the subject
Content
areas (Dutro & Moran 2003) Instruction
ELD Instruction
IV.
ELD Instruction: Language is in the foreground
and content is in the background.
Content Instruction: Content is in the
foreground and language is in the background.
(p. 163-164)
V.
Content Instruction
ELD Instruction
English Language Arts Instruction
Instructed ELD
Goal:
Reading
Intervention
Goal:
Develop a solid
Gain literacy
English language
skills needed to
foundation needed accelerate
to fully engage in
achievement
academic and
(for students
real-life
currently
situations.
performing
below grade
(p.165)
level)
Math, SS,
Science, PE, Arts
Grade-Level ELA
Goal:
Achieve gradelevel content
standards
Goal:
Achieve gradelevel content
standards
Explicit Language Instruction
For Content Learning
Purpose: Teach language needed…
Content: Determined by lesson &
student knowledge of English
Teachers Need: tools to plan lang.
&content learning. Support
through collaborative planning
I.
◦
II.
◦
III.
◦
IV.
◦
English Language Development (ELD)
Many adolescent EL’s do not receive ELD support once they
have reached upper intermediate level on the CELDT
Reading Intervention
Often based on CST or placement test without consideration
for the English level or primary language skills
Sheltered content area instruction
Focus almost exclusively on access to the core/content.
Language learning often becomes secondary or a nonexistent part of instruction. Opportunity to develop the
skills for speaking & writing about the content is lost.
Special Education
IEP’s for English learners need to include language
proficiency goals.
I.
Purposeful use of language identified in ELD
standards (language functions)




To
To
To
To
perform Cognitive tasks
express thinking orally and in writing
inform text structure
engage in social and academic conversation





Participate in discussion
Describe, explain, and elaborate
Predict
Express action and time relationships
Draw Conclusions
Relevance to EL Instruction:
(Figure 3.3 p. 171)
II.
Language tools needed to accomplish these
goals (brick and mortar words)




What language tools are needed to communicate for
different purposes?
What language is needed to comprehend text and express
thinking orally and in writing?
Mortar-Functional words and phrases in sentences
structures

Would have liked to

Are usually/tend to
Bricks-Topic specific words

Tree, elbow (basic)

Debate, government, arid (general)

War of Independence, incisor, germinate (specialized)
(Figure 3.3 p. 171)
III.
Robust and contextualized instruction that
includes many opportunities to engage in
language practice (error free language &
language that is easily produced)



How are language tools introduced, modeled, and
practiced using an I/We/You Do It approach?
What opportunities for structured interaction are provided
for students to practice the language they are learning?
How are students supported in gaining oral and written
fluency?
(Figure 3.3 p. 171)
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