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Chapter 10: The Muslim World

Chapter 10: The Muslim
Essential Questions:
How and why did Islam develop
into a vast empire between 600
and 1250?
What achievements of the
Muslim world impact us still
Section One: The Rise of
I. Deserts, Towns, and Travelers
Arabian Peninsula is a crossroads of
three continents: Africa, Europe,
Very little fertile land, mostly desert
Inhabited by nomadic Arab herders
The Arabian Peninsula
A. Desert and Town Life
 Nomadic herders were called
Bedouins, organized themselves
into clans.
 Had adapted to desert life very
 Bedouins ideals of courage and
family life along with their warrior
skills later became part of the
Islamic way of life.
 By the 600’s Bedouins began to
settle in towns.
B. Crossroads of Trade and Ideas
 Trade routes including the Silk
Roads connected Arabia to
the Byzantine and Sassanid
 Mecca became an important
stop along these trade routes.
 Mecca held a house of
worship called Ka’aba, many
gods and spirits were
worshipped here.
 There was also the concept of
one God, called Allah
practiced on the peninsula.
II. The Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad was born into the
clan of a powerful Meccan family.
He received little schooling and
worked the trade routes
Married Khadijah a wealthy
businesswomen at the age of 25.
A. Revelations
 Muhammad took great interest in
religion and often spent time alone
in prayer and meditation.
 At the age of 40 his life changed
forever, claimed a voice called to
him when he was meditating.
 believed that the voice was Gabriel
an angel of God and he told him that
he was a messenger of God.
 He believed that this one God who
spoke to him through Gabriel was
 He then began teaching the belief of
one god called Allah
 People
who followed his teaching
of Islam became known as
 Islam- submission to the will of
 Muslim- one who has submitted
 He faced much hostility, many
believers were beaten or stoned
in the streets of Mecca
B. The Hijrah
 Muhammad left Mecca in 622, and
settled in Yathrib
 migration from Mecca to Yathrib
became known as the Hijrah.
 City was later renamed Medina,
meaning city of the prophet
 Muhammad became a political,
religious, and military leader of
 Conflicts b/w Mecca and Medina
soon followed
The Hijrah
C. Returning to Mecca
 Many Bedouin tribes
began to convert to Islam.
 Muhammad soon took
control of Mecca
 He then went and
destroyed religious idols in
the Ka’aba
 Muhammad died shortly
after, but had made great
strides in unifying the
entire Arabian Peninsula
under Islam.
III. Beliefs and Practices of Islam
Believe in one God
Teaches there is good and evil,
and that each individual is
responsible for the actions of his
or her life.
The holy book of Muslims is the
Qur’an (Koran)
Believe that they will stand before
Allah on a final judgment day and
enter either heaven or hell.
A. The Five Pillars
 have to carry out 5 duties, these duties
demonstrate a Muslim’s submission to
the will of God.
1. Faith- have to make statement of
faith “There is no God but Allah, and
Muhammad is the Messenger of
Prayer- Five times a day towards
Alms- Must give money to the poor,
through a religious tax.
Five Pillars continued…
4. Pilgrimage- Must perform the hajj, or
pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their
life. Once in Mecca they all wear the same
clothes to stand as equals before God.
5. Fasting- During Ramadan, they eat and
drink nothing between dawn and sunset. A
small meal is eaten at the end of the day.
Call of Mecca Video
B. A way of Life
 No central religious authority
 Forbidden to eat pork or drink
 Does not separate personal life
from religious life
C. Sources of Authority
 original source of authority for
Muslims is Allah
 Allah expressed his will to
Muhammad through Gabriel
 Muhammad’s followers memorized
these revelations
 After Muhammad’s death revelations
were written down= Qur’an
 Qur’an is written in Arabic, and
Muslims consider only Arabic version
to be true word of Allah
 Muslims
believe that Muhammad’s
mission as a prophet was to receive the
Qur’an and to demonstrate how to apply it
into life. Muslim’s call this the Sunna or
Muhammad’s example for proper living.
 The guidance of the Qur’an and the Sunna
was assembled in a body of law known as
the shari’a (shah-REE-ah)
 This system of law regulates the family
life, moral conduct, and business and
community life of Muslims.
Sources of Authority in Islam
governs all Muslim life
holy writings
 With
a neighbor, list the five
pillars of Islam
 Tell how each pillar, if practiced,
could make a society strongergive examples.
Section Two: The Spread of
I. Muhammad’s Successors Spread
 Muhammad did not name a
successor or leave instructions on
how to choose one
 ppl relied on tribal customs to
choose their next leader
 632-Abu-Bakr- first caliph- title
means successor or deputy
A. “ Rightly Guided” Caliphs
 Abu-Bakr + next 3 caliphs (Umar,
Uthman, and Ali) supported
Muhammad’s mission
 called the “rightly guided” caliphs
 Ppl began to abandon Islam, refused
to pay taxes, some began to declare
themselves prophets
Rightly Guided Caliphs continued…
 Abu-Bakr
invoked jihad- means
“striving”- refers to inner struggle
against evil; came to mean an armed
struggle against unbelievers- “holy war”
 next 3 caliphs able to expand Muslim
state by conquering Syria, lower Egypt,
and parts of Persian Empire
 Eventually Muslim Empire stretched
from Atlantic all the way to the Indus
River (4,000 miles wide)
B. Reasons for Success
 Armies well disciplined
 Byzantine and Persian Empire
were exhausted militarily
 Persecuted populations of
Byzantine or Persian Empires often
welcomed invaders, saw them as
Spread Of Islam
C. Treatment of Conquered People
 Welcomed Islam, also did not have to
pay a tax
 Qur’an forbid forced conversions, so
many were able to retain their own
 “People of the book” – Jews and
Christians, received special
consideration- paid a tax each year to
be exempt from military
 not allowed to spread their religions,
did play roles as officials, scholars,
and bureaucrats.
II. Internal Conflict Creates a Crisis
murder of Uthman triggered a civil war
Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son in law,
natural choice but he too was
assassinated in 661
Umayyads soon came to power
moved capital from Mecca to
Damascus, in Syria
began to surround themselves w/
wealth & ceremonies
gave rise to division of Muslims
A. Sunni-Shi’a Split
 Shi’a- minority, resisted Umayyads’
rule (15% today)
 Sunni- majority, did not outwardly
resist Umayyads (85% today)
 Sufi- pursued life of poverty and
devotion to spiritual path, monks (less
than 1% today)
 Religious and political opposition to
Umayyad led to their downfall
 Abbasids took control of empire
Branches of Islam
• a minority, resisted the
Umayyads’ rule
• 15% today
• a majority, did not outwardly
resist the Umayyads
• 85% today
• pursued a life of poverty and
devotion to a spiritual path
• Less than 1% today
III. Muslims Control Areas of Three
Abbasids came to power in
750, murdered remaining
A. Abbasids Consolidate Power
 Moved capital to Baghdad in 762
 Developed strong bureaucracy
 To support bureaucracy taxed land,
imports/exports and non-Muslim
B. Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands
 Abbasid Empire lasted from 750 to
1258, size of empire hurt them
 Separate Muslim states began to
pop up all over the region
 Fatimid Dynasty one of these
independent states
 It began in North Africa and spread
to Red Sea
 Abbasid Empire and smaller powers
remained unified by religion,
language, trade, and economy.
Islam in the World Today
Science and Math
City Life
use chapter 10
section 3 to fill out
the web. 3 facts in
each bubble.
Arts and
Section 3: Muslim Culture
I. Muslim Society: Cities, social
classes, and role of women
Baghdad and Damascus were
leading cities in Muslim Empire
Muslim society made up of 4
social classes:
1. People born Muslims
2. converts to Islam
3. “Protected People”- Jews,
4. Slaves
A. Role of Women
 Qur’an
says men and
women equal in worship
 Muslim women had more
legal rights than other
societies of the day
 But women in Muslim
society were expected to
submit to their husbands
 Over time restrictions on
Muslim women increased
II. Muslim Scholars and Education
 strong emphasis and value on
 Muhammad believed strongly in
power of learning
 House of Wisdom- school in
Baghdad where Greek, Indian,
Persian texts translated/studied
A. The Arts
 literature had a strong tradition in
Arabia even before Islam
 Qur’an is basis for Muslim literature
 Developed art of calligraphybeautiful handwriting
 Also advanced in woodwork, glass,
ceramics and textiles
 Muslim architecture, especially
mosques, combined influences
from many cultures: Greece, Rome,
B. The Sciences
 Muslim contributions most seen in
medicine, math, astronomy
 Believe mathematics is basis of all
 Used observation/experimentation
to learn about world
 Developed modern algebra
 Charted stars, comets, planets
 Developed basics for
microscope/telescope lens
C. Culture blends and survives
 though unified Muslim state broke
up, Muslim culture continued
 three Muslim Empires would
emerge that would reflect blended
culture of this time: Ottoman,
Safavid, Mughal empires
 knowledge developed and
preserved by Muslims would be
drawn upon by European scholars
in the Renaissance
Bonus Pop Quiz
What does “Islam” mean?
What is the most holy city of
List 3 of the 5 pillars of Islam.
What are two sects of Islam?
Give one example of a Muslim
contribution to the modern
 Turn
to page 282
 Skim
the information on the
following pages
 answer
the Critical Thinking
questions 2 & 4 on page 297
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