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Classification of Matter

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What is Matter?
Identify which of the
following would be
considered matter:
•
•
•
•
•
a computer
microwaves
paper
iron
heat
• ice cream
• time
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
sound
wood
Mars
sand
sunlight
a rock
the Sun
energy
a spider
a tree
paint
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
snow
memories
clouds
a sandwich
a fingernail
thoughts
gravity
What is Matter?
Identify which of the following would be considered •
matter:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a computer
microwaves
paper
iron
heat
ice cream
time
sound
wood
Mars
sand
Sunlight
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a rock
the Sun
energy
a spider
a tree
paint
snow
memories
clouds
a sandwich
a fingernail
thoughts
gravity
Matter = 16 , non-matter = 9
What are elements?
• An element is a pure substance that is made
up of only one kind of atom.
What are atoms?
• Atoms are the smallest unit of an element
that maintains the identity of that element.
What are compounds?
• A compound is a substance made up of two or
more elements that are chemically bonded.
Properties of matter can be divided into two categories:
A physical property can be observed or measured
without changing the identity of the substance.
A chemical property describes the ability of a substance
to undergo changes and turn into another substance. It
changes the chemical identity of the substance.
Some examples of Physical Properties:
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Melting point
Boiling point
Brittleness
Color
Solubility (can it dissolve?)
Some examples of Chemical Properties:
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Reactive
Flammable
Explosive
Toxicity
Changes in matter can be divided into two categories:
A physical change is a change in a substance that does not
change the identity of the substance.
A chemical change is a change in which one or more substances
are converted into different substances with a new chemical
identity.
A chemical change is also called a chemical reaction.
• There are four states of Matter:
– Solid
– Liquid
– Gas
– Plasma
Any change in state (phase change) is a physical
change since the chemical identity is untouched
• States of matter on the molecular level
Property
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Shape
Definite
Indefinite
Indefinite
Volume
Definite
Definite
Indefinite
Expansion upon
Heating
Very slight/none
Moderate
Great
Compressibility
Minimal affect
Minimal affect
Easily compressed
with pressure
Appearance of
Particles
Particles are closely
packed, rotate from
a fixed position
Attraction of
particles, allow for
them to touch but
able to “flow”.
Particles are far
apart with little/no
attraction.
•Pure Substance- definite composition
and cannot be easily separated.
•Mixture- blend of two or more
substances that can be separated by
physical means (size, solubility, boiling
point, etc.)
• Pure Substance– Elements
– Compounds
• Mixtures– Homogeneous (uniform throughout)
– Heterogeneous ( non-uniform, distinct phase)
1.
Yes
Can it be separated?
2.
3.
Is the composition uniform?
No
Yes
4.
No
5.
Can it be decomposed by ordinary means?
No
Yes
6.
7.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
4.
1.
Yes
2.
Matter
Can it be separated?
Mixture
Is the composition uniform?
No
Yes
4.
3.
5.
No
Pure Substance
Can it be decomposed by ordinary means?
No
Yes
6.
7.
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
4.
1.
Yes
2.
Matter
Is the composition uniform?
Homogeneous
3.
Mixture
No
Yes
No
Can it be physically separated?
Heterogeneous
Pure Substance
Can it be decomposed by ordinary means?
No
Yes
Compound
Element
1.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
4.
Know your Elements!
1. Elements are the simplest form of matter.
2. Elements are the building blocks of all
substances and cannot be easily divided into
smaller subunits by ordinary chemical
processes.
3. Elements are organized by atomic number on
the periodic table.
4. Elements are identified by their symbols.
Elements & Symbols
• The symbol of an element is often taken from its name.
• The first letter is always capitalized.
• If an element starts with the same letter as another element,
sometime the first two letters are used.
• The second letter is always lowercase.
• Some elements have symbols that don’t match the name of the
element because their name comes from another language.
• element song
Groups – vertical columns, #1-18, elements within the same group have
similar chemical properties.
Periods – horizontal rows
Elements & Symbols
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Hydrogen
Carbon
Sodium
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Fluorine
Helium
Lead
Chlorine
Magnesium
Elements & Symbols
Hydrogen
H
Carbon
C
Sodium
Na
Nitrogen
N
Oxygen
O
Fluorine
F
Helium
He
Lead
Pb
Chlorine
Magnesium
Cl
Mg
Elements & Symbols
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Potassium
Sulfur
Copper
Silver
Gold
Iron
Nickel
Zinc
Aluminum
Calcium
Elements & Symbols
Potassium
K
Sulfur
S
Copper
Cu
Silver
Ag
Gold
Au
Iron
Fe
Nickel
Ni
Zinc
Zn
Aluminum
Al
Calcium
Ca
What are Compounds?
1.
Compounds are substances that are made up of two or more types of
atoms.
2.
Atoms in a compound are held together by chemical bonds.
3.
Compounds can be broken into simpler substance through chemical
processes.
4.
Compounds are described using chemical formulas. The symbols tell
what element and the subscript tells us how many.
Some examples of common compounds include:
Water – H2O , Carbon Dioxide CO2, Sugar – C12H22O11
5.
Common compounds
Name
Formula
Water
H2O
Carbon Dioxide
CO2
Sugar
C12H22O11
Sodium Chloride
NaCl
Ammonia
NH3
Hydrogen Peroxide
H2O2
Methane
CH4
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