Cognitive Assessment Diverse Learners 1996: Most common Tests for Bilinguals WISC (mostly done in all english) Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Draw-a-Person Leiter Bias in testing stems from… Cultural content embedded in the test Linguistic demands inherent in any give test Lack of representation within norm samples Changing normative standards to accommodate perceived language needs (translating the test) IQ Tests Measure IQ as a construct Monocultural ideas of what IQ means as a construct. Cultural impacted ideas of speeded tests, Working Memory Techniques, Q&A methods, etc. Cultural expectations of the community that created the test Performance of individuals in the normative groups that are represented in the sample. BIAS Definied Systematic differences in performance b/w groups not attributed to the ability being measured. Bias occurs when tests are given to diverse individuals who are not comparable in background, experiences, and exposure that that of the individuals comprising the norm group. Developmental nature of test Items Test are Developmental/ incremental (easy to Hard) Learning English may have begun at a different developmental point for ELL. Students may juggle knowledge b/w L1 and l2 instead of being able to know just one language well. Students may have received fewer overall hours of exposure to English language than native English speaker. Test Validity If a test is biased, whatever the reason, you may be testing something other than the construct that you want to examine. IQ and Achievement tests should measure IQ and Achievement and NOT English Language proficiency!!! Group Assignment: representative norms What are some of the problems with using tests that are normed based on the census data? American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; White; Some Other Race; Hispanic or Latino What are some ways that these problems can be overcome? Normative Stratification Stratification in the norm using race does not equate to stratification based on culture. There are currently no tests that stratify based on acculturation. There are currently no tests that stratify based on amount of time exposed to English. Verbal/Nonverbal Bias Bias in nonverbal tests may occur if the instructions are in English only Nonverbal tests not normed using stratified acculturation and Language are still biased. Bias in many tests are revealed more in the verbal tasks than in the nonverbal ones. May be due to learning styles of demonstration, sample, doing instead of socratic method May be due to L1 and L2 differences Nonverbal Assessment Conducted PRIMARILY nonverbally UNIT Leiter-R C-TONI Nonverbal DAS-2 Nonverbal SB-5 Nonverbal KABC-2 May still require some minimal amount of knowledge using receptive language. Native Language Assessment Most non-English Normative measures are in Spanish only. Normative Examples Include: Batería-III Bracken Basic concept Scale: Spanish Version TVIP BASC- Spanish Translation Vineland- Spanish Translation CBM: DIBELS has a Spanish Version Batería-III Cog Norms are based on monolingual English and monolingual spanish (Not bilingual populations) Bilingual Assessment Is not in L1 or L2 but in both languages simultaneously Requires knowledge of Examinee’s Culture Non discriminatory assessment Fluency in L1 and L2 Bilingual Assessment Child can Receive Points for answers in EACH language Examples Include: BVAT ROWPVT-SBE EOWPVT-SBE Some subtests on the KABC-II Bilingual Verbal Ability Test (BVAT) Comprised of 3 WJ-R Cog subtests Picture Vocabulary Oral Vocabulary Verbal Analogies first conducted in English, any items missed are re-administered in L1 All correct answers L1 or L2 are counted toward total score. Bilingual Administration, but norms not sampled considering bilingual and acculturation issues. Bilingual Assessment using BCA-Bil and GIA-Bil One attempt to change the scores on the WJ-III (eng or Spa) into a bilingual measure (instead of 2 monolingual measures) includes the creation of the BCA-Bil and the GIABil. These scores attempt to combine the benefits of BVAT and WJ-III (Eng or Spa), but have serious psychometric issues Also, since the same samples are used, this problem is not fixed. KABC-II Demonstration of KABC-II as Bilingual Assessment Measure. WJ-III Cultural and Language Loading Low Mod. High Low Spat. Rel. Vis. Match Num. Rev. Concept Form. Analy/syn Aud. Wk Mem. Mod Pic Rec Planning Pair Cancel Vis/Aud learn Mem. Word Retrieval Flu. Incomp. Wrds Rapid pic Name Sound Blend Aud. Atten Decis. Speed High Verbal Comp. Gen. info. Impact Cultural and Language Loading Low Low Mod. High Performance Least Affected Increasing effect of Language Diff. Increasing Effect of Cultural Diff. Performance Most Affected (lang. and Culture) Mod High Group Project: Low Mod. High Low Mod High List subtests where you think they should go: UNIT, RIAS Assessment Consider the information presented as a Guideline. use all available data collection techniques that are needed until you have your answer. Multiple sources should always be considered. Factors To Consider In Assessment Current grade of the student Mode of assessment Reduced culture/ language Native language English Bilingual Current and previous types of educational programs Students language proficiency in both L1 and L2 (and L3 if applicable) MAMBI MAMBI = Multidimensional assessment model for bilingual individuals This model Guides choices of assessments looking at all factors of consideration. Pgs. 149 and171of your textbook are needed to review this model. Note about MAMBI This table only addresses through 7th grade. Thought is that if starting school in US after 7th grade, then student should have CALP in l1 by then Background information on previous education is CRUCIAL! Consider assessment based on CALP and background information. Group Project Consider these profiles and determine types of testing. Spanish Speaking 3rd grade child in ESL only; language profile 2 French Speaking 8th grade child in bilingual education, language profile 3 Indigenous Native American Language Speaking Kindergarten Child in ESL only; Language profile 1 Given the paucity of non English and Non Spanish assessments, what are some problems you see.