Se connecter

Se connecter avec OpenID

An Age of Cities

An Age of Cities
Chapter 21, Section 2
An Age of Cities
• Why did cities experience a population
• How did city settlement patterns change?
• How did settlement-house workers and other
reformers work to solve city problems?
Urbanization, the movement of population from farms to cities,
began slowly in the early 1800s. In 1860, one in five Americans
lived in a city. By 1890, one in three did.
What drew people to the cities?
As industry grew, so did
the need for workers—in
steel mills, garment
factories, and so forth.
Others were needed to
serve the growing
population, for example,
by working in stores,
restaurants, and banks.
What drew people to cities?
The flood of immigrants swelled city populations.
What drew people to cities?
Fewer Americans went
west to homestead.
People moved from the
farm to the city in hopes
of finding a better life.
Same reasons as many
African Americans moved to the
cities to improve their lives. Most
African Americans lived in the rural
south. When hard times hit or
prejudice lead to violence, some
African Americans headed to
northern cities.
By the 1890’s, the south side of
Chicago has a thriving AfricanAmerican community. Detroit, New
York, Philadelphia, and other
northern cities also had growing
African American neighborhoods
Cities grew outward from their old downtown sections
Jacob A. Riis, Bandit's Roost,
Bandit’s Roost in an alley off of
Mulberry Street in what is now New
York’s Chinatown district), Riis
argued that the alley, like the
tenement, was a breeding ground for
disorder and criminal behavior.
Jacob A. Riis (Richard Hoe Lawrence), A
Growler Gang in Session (Robbing a Lush),
Jacob A. Riis, Street Arabs in Sleeping Quarters, c. 1880s
Urban Poor
Poor families crowded into the
city’s center, the oldest section
of the city.
Builders put up buildings
several stories high. They
divided the buildings into
small apartments, called
Many tenements had no
windows, heat, or indoor
Diseases, and sometimes fires,
raged through the tenements.
Typical Tenement Building
video clip
City Life
Urban Poor
Jacob Riis “How the Other Half
Urban middle class
Beyond the slums stood
the homes of the new
middle class. Rows of
neat houses lined treeshaded streets.
Middle-class people
joined clubs, societies,
bowling leagues, and
charitable organizations.
The Wealthy
On the outskirts of the
city, behind walls, lay
the mansions of the
very rich.
Rich Americans tried
to live like European
By the 1880s, reformers pressed city
governments for change.
Building codes set standards for
construction and safety. They called
for fire escapes and decent plumbing.
Cities hired workers to collect
garbage and sweep streets.
Factories were prohibited in
neighborhoods where people lived.
Cities set up fire companies and
police forces.
Street lighting made streets less
dangerous at night.
Cities hired engineers and architects
to design new water systems.
Religious Organizations
• The Catholic Church helped
Irish, Polish, and Italian
immigrants. A nun, Mother
Cabrini, helped found dozens
of hospitals.
• Protestant ministers began
preaching a new Social
Gospel, which called on wellto-do members to do their
duty as Christians by helping
the poor.
• The Salvation Army, begun by
an English minister,
expanded to the United
States. It spread Christian
teachings and offered food
and shelter to the poor.
The Young Men’s Hebrew
Association provided social
activities, encouraged
citizenship, and helped Jewish
families preserve their culture
The settlement house movement
By the late 1800s, individuals
began to organize settlement
houses, community centers
that offered services to the
The leading figure of the
movement was Jane Addams.
In 1889 in Chicago, she
opened the first settlement
house—Hull House.
Hull House volunteers taught
classes in government, the
English language, and health
Provided day care for working
mothers and recreational
activities for young people.
• By 1900, about 100
settlement houses
had opened in cities
across the United
• Settlement house
workers such as
Alice Hamilton,
Florence Kelley,
and Jane Addams,
pressed for
health laws, a ban
on child labor, and
women’s suffrage.
Без категории
Taille du fichier
4 930 Кб