Remember . . . Beginnings of Islam Islam rapidly spreads because of its ability to transcend tribal and regional divisions in Arabia Spreads through military expansion of Islamic empire Sunni Muslims become the majority; in support of Abu Bakr The Rightly Guided Caliphs establish Muslim control Umayyads conquer many and expand, but lose legitimacy through extravagant lifestyles, and Abbasids rebel and overthrow them. UMAYYAD CALIPHATE 661-750 • Damascus= Umayyad capital • Umayyads conquer many during this period, and unite areas through expansion. • People could convert to Islam, but little incentive because converts were inferior to born Muslims Few Muslim converts during Umayyad era • Muslim Arabs were first class citizens – Paid lower taxes – Could join imperial administration and army – Received share of riches from conquests DECLINE OF UMAYYADS • Umayyad extravagance and riches • Luxurious lifestyles Legitimacy is questioned; abandoned frugal, simple lifestyle of Muhammad • People resent extravagance of Umayyads, see them as corrupt and decadent. • Abbasid family/army rebels and challenges Umayyad army at the Battle of the River Zab in 750. • An Umayyad survivor, Abd-ar-Rahman I, flees to the Iberian Peninsula and creates the Caliphate of Córdoba. 5 TENSIONS WITH THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE • Muslim invaders received support of some Christians because Muslims taxed them less than the Orthodox church did. • Ultimately cannot defend against Arab assaults. • Muslim naval supremacy challenged Byzantine control of Mediterranean. • Muslim invaders reduced strength of Byzantine Empire in N. Africa, Mediterranean, S. Italy CÓRDOBA CALIPHATE IN AL-ANDALUS 756-1031 • Al-Andalus: Islamic Spain • 711: Berbers (North African Muslims) move into Iberian peninsula • 732: Halted at Battle of Tours in France • 756: Umayyads arrive and begin Córdoba Caliphate • Preserved Greco-Roman knowledge that provides the basis for Islamic developments. • Unique Spanish Arabic style emerges in art, vocabulary, architecture. COMMERCIAL BOOM • Abbasids used dhows with triangular sails to carry goods for trade. • Muslims participate heavily in Indian Ocean Trade; become the dominant traders. • Muslims collaborate with Christians and Jews to trade. • Different Sabbaths meant trading all week • Artisans created glassware, jewelry, furniture, carpets. • Region with few natural resources. ISLAMIC CULTURE • Architecture focused on great mosques with minarets. • Greco-Roman learning that had been lost after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire was recopied by Muslims and distributed throughout the empire for their use. • Writings from Aristotle (philosopher), Hippocrates (physician), Ptolemy (astronomer) and Euclid (mathematician) were saved. Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia ABBASID CALIPHATE • • • • Abbasids begin as Shi’ites but change to Sunnis. Abbasids built new capital in Baghdad, Iraq Converts are seen as equal to natural born Muslims. Continue Umayyad style of excess and luxury • Harems: Originate with Abbasids, a household of wives and concubines • Abbasid caliphs are increasingly distracted, and the power of the wazir, or chief administrator, increases. • Head of caliph’s inner councils • Royal executioner • Built administrative infrastructure Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258 By mid 9th century, Abbasid dynasty had begun to lose control over their vast empire as it gradually disintegrated. Caliphs grew dependent on their advisors, who increased their power. Sumptuous living and many civil wars drained the treasury increasing taxes peasant revolts. Shi’a revolts, assassination attempts against Abbasid officials Abbasid Caliphate, cont. Increase in mercenary (professional soldiers hired to serve in an army) armies. Aggressive; create social unrest and distrust of Abbasids; expensive. Caliphs attempted to build new cities and modernize old ones (extremely expensive); migration to urban centers which leaves agricultural villages abandoned Women in Abbasid Caliphate Initially in Islam, women were not required to wear veils and were not secluded. Freedom and influence of women declined: harem secludes women. Abbasidian society was patriarchal: polygamous provided they can care for them equally. Women began to be veiled: shield women from gaze of men Abbasid wealth generated large demand for concubines and female slaves. Buyids of Persia Abbasids’ difficulties in managing vast empire lead to a loss of territory and loss of control in outer reaches of empire. Independent kingdoms (ex: Buyids of Persia) form with the aim to supplant Abbasids The Buyids of Persia captured Baghdad in 945 CE. Buyids are Shi’a and reject the Sunni ideas of the Abbasids Abbasid caliphs became powerless and are controlled by sultans (Buyid leaders, “victorious”) Seljuk Turks In one century, Buyid control is broken by the Seljuk Turks in 1055 CE. Seljuks were Muslim nomadic invaders from Central Asia Seljuks were Sunnis who eliminated the Shi’a Buyid officials and any Shi’a influence the Buyids had caused. Rival groups of Shi’a Egyptians and Byzantines were defeated by Seljuks The Crusades 1096 CE - West European Christian crusaders invaded Muslim territory with the goal of capturing the Biblical Holy Land and Jerusalem (June 1099) Chaos from Buyid and Seljuk invasions in empire makes Crusader invasion simple Saladin: leads Muslim opposition to Crusaders in Holy Land (12th c.) Result of Crusades: Europeans recover lost Greek learning preserved by Muslim civilizations. Muslims, on the other hand, are mostly uninterested in European civilization. Islamic Golden Age Political decline and social turmoil were offset for many by the urban affluence, inventiveness, and artistic creativity of the Abbasid Age. Increase in trade and intellectual creativity Schools, libraries, and institutes are created in large numbers by the 12th century (Cairo, Baghdad, Córdoba) House of Wisdom in Baghdad established by Harun al-Rashid, 5th Abbasid caliph Ancient Greek, Roman, and Persian knowledge is preserved by Muslims. Islamic Golden Age: Math and Science Math: Algebra, trigonometry, geometry are strengthened. Indian system of numbers is brought to Middle East by caravan traders Science: Improved astronomical instruments, medicine, hospitals Interest in astronomy: refined astrolabe: measures position of stars Optics; human anatomy Papermaking (Battle of Talas, 751) Scholars made some of the world’s best maps: knowledge of seas and coastlines Islamic Golden Age: Literature and Art Persian replaced Arabic as the language of Abbasid court and of “high culture,” as Arabic became the language of religion, law and the natural sciences. Great literary tradition emerges in this period Firdawsi’s epic poem, Shah-Nama, a history of Persia from creation to Islamic conquest One Thousand and One Arabian Nights Calligraphy and arabesques illustrated poetry and writing. Architecture: minarets were built atop mosques New Groups of Muslims Ulama (religious scholars) became more conservative and suspicious of non-Muslim influences and scientific thought Disliked Muslims utilizing Greco-Roman knowledge; associated it with the aggressive Crusader culture Sufis are interested in mysticism, sought personal union with Allah through asceticism, meditation, songs, dancing or drugs. Gained reputations as healers and miracle workers. Islamic Trade Rapid urban growth and prosperity, which lasted until late in the Abbasid era Employment opportunities for skilled individuals remained abundant Merchants remained wealthy; Long-distance trade flourishes from western Mediterranean to China Artists and artisans created mosques, palaces, tapestries, rugs, bronzes, jewelry, and ceramics. The End of the Abbasids Mongols (Central Asian nomadic invaders) were a threat to Islamic lands Chinggis Khan (Ghengis Khan) destroyed the Turkish Persian kingdoms east of Baghdad in 1220s His grandson, Hulegu, continued the assault in 1250s on center of Islamic civilization 1258 CE - Last Abbasid caliph (37th) was executed when Baghdad was invaded by the Mongols. Islam Spreads to India Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526) In the 7th century, Muslim invaders, traders, and migrants carry Islamic civilization to India 711: Sind, land in western India, conquered 11th c.: Indus River Valley and north central India conquered by Muhammad of Ghur 1206: creation of Delhi Sultanate, an extensive Islamic state in the Indus valley and north-central India led by Wutb-ud-din Aibak Society where Muslim rulers governed Hindu subjects, employ Hindus to govern over small communities Although the Delhi Sultanate is militarily powerful, it does not establish a strong government. Islam in India Islamic civilization was enriched by Indian culture, while Indian achievements were passed to Arabs Muslims came as conquerors but interactions with Indians were generally peaceful, while the main carriers of Islam were conquerors, traders, and Sufi mystics. Additionally, colonies of Arab traders settled along India’s coasts, adopted local customs Provided staging points for Islamic expansion to Southeast Asia. Muslim communities adopted many Indian ways and attempts were made to bridge the gaps between Islam and Hinduism. Hinduism vs. Islam High-caste Hindus did not accept Muslims as equals and did not want to give up their caste spots to their conquerors, but lower caste members and untouchables liked the equality in Islam. Islam succumbs to the caste system; could not eradicate it. Hindus maintain dominance in the system. Muslim Ulama stressed the incompatibility of Islam’s principles with Hindu beliefs. Majority of population in India remained Hindu, and India remained the least converted of all regions where Islam spreads. Hinduism vs. Islam Religion Society Hinduism Open, tolerant, polytheistic, inclusive of widely varying forms of religion, no emphasis on proselytizing Islam Unflinchingly monotheistic, proselytizing Rigid caste system Egalitarian (all equal under God) There were conversions though, and many were peaceful; Buddhists were the most numerous converts to Islam. WHY? Religion Society Buddhism Open, tolerant of other religions, multiple forms of Buddha, proselytizing Belief that individuals are equal; renounces caste Islam Unflinchingly monotheistic, proselytizing Egalitarian (all equal under God) Islam Spreads to Southeast Asia Islam in Southeast Asia Continues to spread East after Islam is in India; result of trading contacts and Sufi conversion efforts rather than military conquests. 8th c.: Southeast Asian sailors and ships, who were active in trade, interacted with Islamic traders after Muslims had gained control of Indian Ocean commerce Coastal cities were most receptive to Islam; most exposed to a variety of things due to interactions with other cultures through trade Conversions are generally peaceful: New believers combine Islamic teaching/rituals with elements of local religion. Islamic law ruled legal transactions. Islam in Southeast Asia Global Connections: Islam Despite the political instability of the Abbasids, Islam’s central position in global history was solidified. Social strife and political divisions VS. expanding trade and intellectual creativity. Islam brought a global culture to nomadic peoples in South and Southeast Asia. The spread of Islam helps to create trade connections between various regions. Islamic cultural contributions range from intellectual discoveries to universities.