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Chapter Seven: Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic

Remember . . .
Beginnings of Islam
Islam rapidly spreads because of its ability to
transcend tribal and regional divisions in Arabia
Spreads through military expansion of Islamic
Sunni Muslims become the majority; in support of
Abu Bakr
The Rightly Guided Caliphs establish Muslim control
Umayyads conquer many and expand, but lose
legitimacy through extravagant lifestyles, and
Abbasids rebel and overthrow them.
• Damascus= Umayyad capital
• Umayyads conquer many during this period,
and unite areas through expansion.
• People could convert to Islam, but little
incentive because converts were inferior to
born Muslims  Few Muslim converts during
Umayyad era
• Muslim Arabs were first class citizens
– Paid lower taxes
– Could join imperial administration and army
– Received share of riches from conquests
• Umayyad extravagance and riches
• Luxurious lifestyles  Legitimacy is questioned;
abandoned frugal, simple lifestyle of
• People resent extravagance of Umayyads, see
them as corrupt and decadent.
• Abbasid family/army rebels and challenges
Umayyad army at the Battle of the River Zab in
• An Umayyad survivor, Abd-ar-Rahman I, flees to the
Iberian Peninsula and creates the Caliphate of
• Muslim invaders received support of
some Christians because Muslims
taxed them less than the Orthodox
church did.
• Ultimately cannot defend against
Arab assaults.
• Muslim naval supremacy
challenged Byzantine control of
• Muslim invaders reduced strength
of Byzantine Empire in N. Africa,
Mediterranean, S. Italy
• Al-Andalus: Islamic Spain
• 711: Berbers (North African
Muslims) move into Iberian
• 732: Halted at Battle of Tours in
• 756: Umayyads arrive and begin
Córdoba Caliphate
• Preserved Greco-Roman
knowledge that provides the
basis for Islamic developments.
• Unique Spanish Arabic style
emerges in art, vocabulary,
• Abbasids used dhows with
triangular sails to carry goods
for trade.
• Muslims participate heavily in
Indian Ocean Trade; become
the dominant traders.
• Muslims collaborate with
Christians and Jews to trade.
• Different Sabbaths meant trading
all week
• Artisans created glassware,
jewelry, furniture, carpets.
Region with few natural resources.
• Architecture focused on great
mosques with minarets.
• Greco-Roman learning that had
been lost after the collapse of the
Western Roman Empire was
recopied by Muslims and
distributed throughout the empire
for their use.
• Writings from Aristotle
(philosopher), Hippocrates
(physician), Ptolemy
(astronomer) and Euclid
(mathematician) were saved.
Abbasid Decline and the Spread of
Islamic Civilization to South and
Southeast Asia
Abbasids begin as Shi’ites but change to Sunnis.
Abbasids built new capital in Baghdad, Iraq
Converts are seen as equal to natural born Muslims.
Continue Umayyad style of excess and luxury
• Harems: Originate with Abbasids, a household of wives and
• Abbasid caliphs are increasingly distracted, and the
power of the wazir, or chief administrator, increases.
• Head of caliph’s inner councils
• Royal executioner
• Built administrative infrastructure
Abbasid Caliphate
By mid 9th century, Abbasid dynasty had begun to lose
control over their vast empire as it gradually disintegrated.
Caliphs grew dependent on their advisors, who
increased their power.
Sumptuous living and many civil wars drained the
treasury  increasing taxes  peasant revolts.
Shi’a revolts, assassination attempts against Abbasid
Abbasid Caliphate, cont.
Increase in mercenary (professional soldiers
hired to serve in an army) armies.
Aggressive; create social unrest and distrust
of Abbasids; expensive.
Caliphs attempted to build new cities and
modernize old ones (extremely expensive);
migration to urban centers which leaves
agricultural villages abandoned
Women in Abbasid Caliphate
Initially in Islam, women were not required
to wear veils and were not secluded.
Freedom and influence of women
declined: harem secludes women.
Abbasidian society was patriarchal:
polygamous provided they can care for
them equally.
Women began to be veiled: shield
women from gaze of men
Abbasid wealth generated large
demand for concubines and female
Buyids of Persia
Abbasids’ difficulties in managing
vast empire lead to a loss of territory
and loss of control in outer reaches
of empire.
Independent kingdoms (ex: Buyids
of Persia) form with the aim to
supplant Abbasids
The Buyids of Persia captured
Baghdad in 945 CE.
Buyids are Shi’a and reject the
Sunni ideas of the Abbasids
Abbasid caliphs became powerless
and are controlled by sultans (Buyid
leaders, “victorious”)
Seljuk Turks
In one century, Buyid control is
broken by the Seljuk Turks in
1055 CE.
Seljuks were Muslim nomadic
invaders from Central Asia
Seljuks were Sunnis who
eliminated the Shi’a Buyid
officials and any Shi’a influence
the Buyids had caused.
Rival groups of Shi’a Egyptians
and Byzantines were defeated by
The Crusades
1096 CE - West European Christian crusaders invaded Muslim territory with
the goal of capturing the Biblical Holy Land and Jerusalem (June 1099)
Chaos from Buyid and Seljuk invasions in empire makes Crusader invasion
Saladin: leads Muslim opposition to Crusaders in Holy Land (12th c.)
Result of Crusades: Europeans recover lost Greek learning preserved by
Muslim civilizations. Muslims, on the other hand, are mostly uninterested in
European civilization.
Islamic Golden Age
Political decline and social turmoil
were offset for many by the urban
affluence, inventiveness, and artistic
creativity of the Abbasid Age.
Increase in trade and intellectual
Schools, libraries, and institutes are
created in large numbers by the 12th
century (Cairo, Baghdad, Córdoba)
House of Wisdom in Baghdad
established by Harun al-Rashid, 5th
Abbasid caliph
Ancient Greek, Roman, and Persian
knowledge is preserved by Muslims.
Islamic Golden Age:
Math and Science
Math: Algebra, trigonometry, geometry are
Indian system of numbers is brought to
Middle East by caravan traders
Science: Improved astronomical
instruments, medicine, hospitals
Interest in astronomy: refined astrolabe:
measures position of stars
Optics; human anatomy
Papermaking (Battle of Talas, 751)
Scholars made some of the world’s best
maps: knowledge of seas and coastlines
Islamic Golden Age:
Literature and Art
Persian replaced Arabic as the language of
Abbasid court and of “high culture,” as Arabic
became the language of religion, law and the
natural sciences.
Great literary tradition emerges in this period
Firdawsi’s epic poem, Shah-Nama, a history of
Persia from creation to Islamic conquest
One Thousand and One Arabian Nights
Calligraphy and arabesques illustrated poetry and
Architecture: minarets were built atop mosques
New Groups of Muslims
Ulama (religious scholars) became more conservative
and suspicious of non-Muslim influences and scientific
Disliked Muslims utilizing Greco-Roman knowledge;
associated it with the aggressive Crusader culture
Sufis are interested in mysticism, sought personal
union with Allah through asceticism, meditation,
songs, dancing or drugs.
Gained reputations as healers and miracle workers.
Islamic Trade
Rapid urban growth and prosperity, which lasted until late
in the Abbasid era
Employment opportunities for skilled individuals remained
Merchants remained wealthy; Long-distance trade
flourishes from western Mediterranean to China
Artists and artisans created mosques, palaces,
tapestries, rugs, bronzes, jewelry, and ceramics.
The End of the Abbasids
Mongols (Central Asian nomadic
invaders) were a threat to Islamic lands
Chinggis Khan (Ghengis Khan)
destroyed the Turkish Persian kingdoms
east of Baghdad in 1220s
His grandson, Hulegu, continued the
assault in 1250s on center of Islamic
1258 CE - Last Abbasid caliph (37th) was
executed when Baghdad was invaded by
the Mongols.
Islam Spreads to India
Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526)
In the 7th century, Muslim invaders, traders,
and migrants carry Islamic civilization to India
711: Sind, land in western India, conquered
11th c.: Indus River Valley and north central
India conquered by Muhammad of Ghur
1206: creation of Delhi Sultanate, an
extensive Islamic state in the Indus valley and
north-central India led by Wutb-ud-din Aibak
Society where Muslim rulers governed
Hindu subjects, employ Hindus to govern
over small communities
Although the Delhi Sultanate is militarily
powerful, it does not establish a strong
Islam in India
Islamic civilization was enriched by Indian culture, while
Indian achievements were passed to Arabs
Muslims came as conquerors but interactions with Indians
were generally peaceful, while the main carriers of Islam
were conquerors, traders, and Sufi mystics.
Additionally, colonies of Arab traders settled along India’s
coasts, adopted local customs
Provided staging points for Islamic expansion to Southeast
Muslim communities adopted many Indian ways and
attempts were made to bridge the gaps between Islam and
Hinduism vs. Islam
High-caste Hindus did not accept Muslims as equals and did
not want to give up their caste spots to their conquerors, but
lower caste members and untouchables liked the equality in
Islam succumbs to the caste system; could not eradicate it.
Hindus maintain dominance in the system.
Muslim Ulama stressed the incompatibility of Islam’s
principles with Hindu beliefs.
Majority of population in India remained Hindu, and India
remained the least converted of all regions where Islam
Hinduism vs. Islam
Open, tolerant,
polytheistic, inclusive of
widely varying forms of
religion, no emphasis on
Unflinchingly monotheistic,
Rigid caste system
Egalitarian (all equal under
There were conversions though, and many were peaceful;
Buddhists were the most numerous converts to Islam. WHY?
Open, tolerant of other
religions, multiple forms of
Buddha, proselytizing
Belief that individuals are
equal; renounces caste
Unflinchingly monotheistic,
Egalitarian (all equal under
Islam Spreads to Southeast Asia
Islam in Southeast Asia
Continues to spread East after Islam is in India; result of
trading contacts and Sufi conversion efforts rather than
military conquests.
8th c.: Southeast Asian sailors and ships, who were active
in trade, interacted with Islamic traders after Muslims had
gained control of Indian Ocean commerce
Coastal cities were most receptive to Islam; most exposed
to a variety of things due to interactions with other cultures
through trade
Conversions are generally peaceful: New believers
combine Islamic teaching/rituals with elements of local
Islamic law ruled legal transactions.
Islam in Southeast Asia
Global Connections:
Despite the political instability of the Abbasids, Islam’s
central position in global history was solidified.
Social strife and political divisions VS. expanding trade
and intellectual creativity.
Islam brought a global culture to nomadic peoples in
South and Southeast Asia.
The spread of Islam helps to create trade connections
between various regions.
Islamic cultural contributions range from intellectual
discoveries to universities.
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