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CH. 3 Exploration & Colonization

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CH. 3 EXPLORATION &
COLONIZATION
Pgs. 66-99
Drill





Corn
Potatoes
Squash
Tomatoes
Peanuts
 What
do these foods have in common?
 List facts you know about Christopher Columbus
Objectives



Explain why the voyage of Christopher Columbus
had a more lasting impact that earlier voyages
Describe how Spanish explorers found a route
across the Pacific Ocean
Discuss how exploration set off a global exchange
of goods and services
Early Voyages to the Americas

Many stories exist about early people from Europe or
Asia sailing to the Americas, but real evidence has been
hard to find

Polynesians


Asians


canoes
Chinese and Japanese fishing boats
Vikings left most detailed records

Leif Ericson

Vinland settlement
 Unsure as to why they left
 Describe fierce battles with Skraelings (Inuits)
Columbus’ Atlantic Crossing

Voyage financed by King Ferdinand & Isabella
3
ships
 Sailors began to get impatient without seeing land
 Began following birds
 2 A.M. October 12th spotted land
 Planted
banner of Spain on the beach
 Convinced he was in the East Indies (really islands off the
North American coast)

Explored the “West Indies”
 Found gold
Spain Authorizes Colonies



Columbus gives king & queen many gifts to convince
them of riches
Columbus also believes that the Tainos could easily
be converted to Christianity
King & Queen were impressed
 Financed
future voyages
founded 1st Spanish colony (group of people who
settle in a distant land but are still ruled by the gov’t of their
native land) in the Americas on island of Hispaniola
 Columbus

Claimed other lands for Spain (Central America, South America)
Columbus



Better explorer than governor
Settlers of Hispaniola complained about his harsh
rule
Isabella sent an investigator
 Columbus
 He
returned to Spain in chains
died convinced he had reached Asia
Drill

Does Columbus deserve the honor or being
remembered for discovering America? Yes or no?
Explain.
A Lasting Impact

Does Columbus deserve the honor of being
remembered as the one who “discovered” America?

Yes and no
We know Native Americans had “discovered” & settled these
lands long before Columbus
 Europeans knew nothing of these “new” lands until Columbus told
them
 Columbus’ voyages marked the beginning of lasting contact
between Africa, Europe & the Americas


Tragic results for many Native Americans, but it was a turning point
(moment in history that marks a decisive change) for the Americas
 Europeans saw the Americas as a place to settle, trade & grow
rich
Spanish Cross the Pacific

Vasco Nunez de Balboa
 Reached

the Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan
 Sailed
across Pacific Ocean with 5 ships & 250 crew
members
 Killed in the Philippine Islands
 Only 1 ship & 18 sailors returned to Spain
 1st
to circumnavigate (sail completely around) the world

Voyage made Europeans aware of the true size of the Earth
Class work

P. 71 Chart Skills #1-2
A Global Cultural Exchange

Global exchange of goods & ideas that started with
the voyage of Columbus

Columbian Exchange (p. 71)

European Influences


Positive & negative
 Domestic animals, bananas, disease
Native American Influences


Adopted Native American skills
 Ben Franklin admired the League of the Iroquois
Valuable crops
 ½ the worlds crops today come from plants that were first
grown in the Americas
 Allowed people’s diets to change & population to increase
Connecting with Science & Technology

Class work:
 1.
Why were corn, beans and squash often grown
together?
 2. How did Native Americans use corn?
Connecting with Economics

Class work
 1.
What effect did trade have for Native Americans?
 2. Why did the French governors invite Native
American tribal leaders to their cities?
Quick Check S1




1. List 2 effects of Columbus’s voyage.
2. What route did Magellan’s expedition take?
3. List 2 European influences on the Americas.
4. List 2 Native Americans influences on the rest of
the world.
Class work: Sequencing

P. 73 #1-4 Practice the Skill
Drill

P. 72 #6
Section 2: Spain Builds an Empire
Objectives




Describe how conquistadors defeated two Indian
empires
Name the areas the Spanish explored
Explain how Spain settled its colonies
Summarize what life was like for Native Americans
under Spanish rule
Spain Grows Rich…


“What a troublesome thing it is to discover new
lands. The risks we took, it is hardly possible to
exaggerate.”
“We came here to serve God and the king and also
to get rich.”
Spanish Conquistadors

Rulers of Spain gave conquistadors permission to
establish settlements in the Americas
 In
return they agreed to give Spain 1/5 of any gold or
treasure they captured
 Many
were eager to win riches & glory
Conquest of the Aztecs

Moctezuma (Aztec emperor)
 Aztec
sacred writings predicted the arrival of a whiteskinned god that would come from the east to rule the
Aztecs
 Moctezuma

welcomed Hernando Cortes as a guest
Cortes took advantage
 He had already won support of other Indians who resented
Aztec rule
 Cortes takes Moctezuma prisoner & eventually is killed
 Spanish control Tenochtitlan
Conquest of the Incas

Francisco Pizzaro captured the Incan leader
Atahualpa
 Executed
 Without
 How
him
his leadership, Incan empire collapsed
were the Spanish able to conquer two great empires
with only a handful of soldiers?
Reasons for Spanish Victories

Superior military equipment
Protected by steel armor & had guns
 Aztecs had clubs, bows & arrows, spears & had never seen
horses


Native Americans did not fight as hard as they might
have


Aztecs hesitated because they thought Spaniards were gods
Many Indians died from European diseases

Many historians believe disease alone would have ensured
a Spanish victory
Exploring Spanish Borderlands



Present-day Florida to California
Spanish expeditions into the borderlands met with
little success
Faced with strong Indian resistance in the north,
Spain focused instead on bringing order to its
empire in the south
Class work

P. 76 #2-3
Settling New Spain



Spain initially let conquistadors rule lands they
conquered, but they were poor rulers
Spanish king took away their authority & set up a
strong system of gov’t rule for the empire
Law of the Indies:
 Stated
how colonies should be organized & ruled
 3 types of settlements: pueblos, presidios, & missions
Pueblos & Presidios

Pueblos

 Towns
 Centers
 Forts
of farming &
trade
 Plaza
in center
 Shops & homes lined all
sides of plaza
 Colony
 Santa
Presidios
of New Mexico
Fe capital
where soldiers
lived
 High walls
 Shops,
stables, food
storehouses inside
 Protected
the farmers
who settled nearby
 St. Augustine, FL (1565)
Missions

Spanish believed they had the duty to convert
Indians to Christianity
 Set
up missions (religious settlements run by Catholic
priests & friars)
 Forced
Indians to live & work on missions
 1st mission established in El Paso, TX
Class work

P. 77 Geo Skills #2-3
Society in New Spain


Established in the Law of the Indies
4 social classes:

Peninsulares



Creoles




Born in Americas to Spanish parents
Wealthy, well-educated, owned farms, ranches
Could not hold highest jobs
Mestizos




Born in Spain; highest jobs in gov’t & Church
Owned lots of land; wealthy
Spanish & Indian background
Worked on farms, ranches owned by peninsulares & creoles
Carpenters, shoemakers, bakers
Indians


Treated as a conquered people
Kept in poverty
Connecting with Culture

Class work:
 1.
How were the social structures in Spain and Spanish
America similar?
 2. How did cultural diversity affect the social classes in
Spanish America?
Blend of Cultures

Spanish
 Brought
language,
laws, religion &
learning to colonies
 Founded
the University
of New Mexico

Indian
 Influenced
food &
clothing
 Poncho
 Moccasins
 Built
with adobe bricks
 Indian artists
decorated walls with
paintings of local
traditions
Harsh Life for Native Americans

Spanish gov’t gave settlers encomiendas (land
grants that included the right to demand labor or
taxes from Native Americans)
 Hard
labor
 Native
Americans forced to work in mines that made Spain
rich
 Many died

Bartolome de Las Casas wanted reform
 Asked king to protect Indians
 Royal gov’t passed laws prohibiting enslavement of Native
Americans & allowing them to own cattle & crops
 Few Spanish officials enforced it though
Slave Trade


Death toll increased but Spain needed workers
Las Casas wanted to protect Native Americans
 Made
 Bring
a lasting, tragic suggestion
Africans as slaves to replace Indian laborers

Thought they would be less likely to die of European diseases

Las Casas came to regret his suggestion
 Enslaved Africans suffered just as much as Indians, but it was
too late
 Slavery was a key part of the colonial economy
Slave Trade Spreads



Plantations (large estate farmed by many workers)
Many countries began relying on slave labor to run
these plantations
Estimates of up to 10 million slaves transported
between 1500s-1800s
 500,000
will eventually come to the British colonies of
North America
Quick Check S2





1. Why were the Spanish able to conquer the
Americas?
2. What areas of North America did the Spanish
explore?
3. How did the Laws of the Indies regulate life in
New Spain?
4. What was life like for Native Americans under
Spanish rule?
5. Why did Spain bring Africans to the Americas?
Drill

Page 79 Geography Skills #1-2
Section 3 Colonizing North America
Objectives



Explain why England, France & the Netherlands
sought a NW passage to Asia
Discuss how the Protestant Reformation affected
rivalries among European nations
Describe how a rivalry developed between New
France & New Netherland
European Nations

Spain had been growing rich from establishing new
colonies after successful exploration
 England,
France & the Netherlands envied Spain’s new
empire
 They
wanted colonies of their own
Search for Northwest Passage

Europeans looked for new ways to reach Asia
 Magellan’s
route seemed long & difficult (had to travel
around southern tip of South America)
 Wanted
to find a waterway through or around North
America

John Cabot believed he found a “new-found-island” in Asia &
thought his expedition was a success
 In reality he was off the coast of North America
 Newfoundland, Canada
Searching for a NW Passage
France

Giovanni da
Verrazano
 Journeyed
North
American coast from
Carolinas to Canada

Jacques Cartier
 Traveled
on presentday St. Lawrence river
England/Dutch

Henry Hudson



Entered present-day NY
harbor
Sailed up a river that is now
named after him
Made another voyage farther
north (present-day Hudson
Bay)

Harsh winter & his crew
rebelled

Sent him, his son & loyal
crew members off in a small
boat (never seen again)
Failure & Success


None of the explorers found a NW passage
Successfully mapped & explored many parts of
North America
 Began
 How

seeing $$$
can we profit from those resources?
European nations will begin to compete for riches
 Religious differences heighten the rivalry
Connecting with Geography

Class work:
 1.
What obstacles did Dutch farmers have to overcome
in New Netherland?
 2. Why did most of the Dutch who ventured overseas
become traders?
Class work

P. 82 Geography Skills #3
Religious Divisions

Protestant Reformation
 Martin
Luther publicly challenged the Catholic Church
 Supporters

became known as Protestants
Movement spreads and many different churches are formed
 Spain: Roman Catholic monarchy
 France: Roman Catholic monarchy
 England: Protestant queen
 Netherlands: most of the Dutch were Protestant
 Will all bring their religious conflicts with them
 Will compete for land & attempt to steal from each other
New France (Background Info.)

Samuel de Champlain
Port Royal (1st permanent French settlement)
 Also built a trading post on a rocky cliff high above the
St. Lawrence River
 Founded
 Quebec

French profited from fishing, trapping & trading
 Traded with Native Americans to receive furs that were sold
for high prices in Europe
 Catholic missionaries traveled with fur traders
 Established friendly relations with Native Americans
 Did not attempt to conquer them or interfere with Indian
lands
Expansion (Background)

Indian guides told the French about the Mississippi
River
 Father
Jacques Marquette & fur trader Louis Joliet
were led by Indian guides 700 miles down the river
 Robert de La Salle traveled down MI River to the Gulf
of Mexico
 Named

region Louisiana after French King
Built forts to keep the Spanish & English out
 Fort Detroit, New Orleans (busy trading center)
 Slavery on planatations
Gov’t of New France




Governed like New Spain
French king controlled gov’t directly; people had
little freedom
Council appointed by the king made all decision
King had a hard time getting French to settle in
New France
New Netherland (Background)

Peter Minuit led Dutch settlers to mouth of Hudson
River
 Bought
Manhattan Island from local Indians
 Called

Busy port city
 Other

settlement New Amsterdam
Dutch settlers traveled farther north up Hudson River
Colony of New Netherland
 Built trading posts, Ft. Orange (Present-day Albany)
Rivalry Over Furs

Dutch v. French
 Both
sought Native American alliances (agreement
between nations to aid & protect one another)
 Dutch
& Iroquois
 French & Hurons
Class work

P. 85 Graphic Organizer Skills #1-2
Dutch Ways in America



Ice skating
St. Nicholas’s birthday  Santa Claus
Dutch words
 Boss
 Yacht
 Cookies
 Sleighs
Impact on Native Americans



European diseases killed thousands of Indians
Rivalry over fur trade increased Indian warfare
(European nations encouraged them to attack each
other)
Forced off of their lands
Quick Check S3




1. Why did Europeans seeks a northern route to
Asia?
2. What religious differences divided Europe?
3. How did religious differences in Europe affect
the race for American colonies?
4. How did the rivalry between French and Dutch
colonists affect Native Americans?
Drill

P. 90 Geography Skills #2-3
Drill

Page 85
 Graphic
Organizer Skills #1-2
Objectives



Identify challenges faced by the first English
colonies
Describe how VA began a tradition of
representative gov’t
Name the groups of people who made up the new
arrivals in VA after 1619
Scenario

You are establishing a colony. What rules or laws
would you enact?
Think Back…

Spain had a hard time establishing & governing its
colonies.
 Do
you think the English will face similar problems?
Why?
Thomas Gates & Jamestown



Full of plans about how to run colony
Of 700 original colonists only 60 remained
Discouraged
 Got
on ships to return to England
 Luckily,
a ship of supplies arrived
 Jamestown
colony survived for now
First English Colony

England was envious of Spain’s success
 Sir
Walter Raleigh
 Set

sail & landed at Roanoke
Within a year
 No food
 Quarrels with Indians
 Wanted to return to England
Lost Colony

John White was sent back to Roanoke with new
settlers

Supplies ran low

Went back to England; left 117 colonists

Not able to return to Roanoke for 3 years
 No one was there


Researchers today believe the settlers were victims of the worst
drought the region had seen in 8 centuries
Came to this conclusion based on a study of moisture-sensitive tree
rings from an 800 year old cypress tree
Jamestown


20 years passed before England tries to establish
another colony
VA company of London received a charter (legal
document giving certain rights to a person or
company) from King James I

Settle lands between present-day NC & the Potomac River

Would be named Virginia

Settlers in this colony would have the same rights as English citizens
Disastrous Start

1607, 105 colonists arrived in VA

Sailed into Chesapeake Bay & built homes along the James
River

Swampy ground



Unhealthy water
Starvation


Mosquitoes  malaria
All people wanted to do was “dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load
gold”
Difficult to govern even with a 13 man council


Frequently argued
Did very little planning for the future
Recovery

Captain John Smith established strict rules & visited
nearby Indian villages
 Must
work if you want to eat
 Ran almost like a military outpost
 Indian chief, Powhatan, agreed to give them corn
 Does

not last
Indians refused to supply food & colonists took it by force
 Frequent, bloody warfare
 Even in peace the colony struggled to survive
A Profitable Crop

Jamestown’s economy improves
 Tobacco
 King

James called pipe smoking a “vile custom”
Regardless, 30,000 pounds were imported to England
 Helped save colony from falling apart
Representative Government

Wanted to establish a more stable gov’t to attract
more settlers
 Male
settlers were allowed to elect, burgesses
(representatives to the gov’t)
 Met

in an assembly: House of Burgesses
Made laws for colony with the governor and his council
English Traditions


Magna Carta
Parliament
 Show
that the English had a history of believing that
people had political rights
VA’s Representative Tradition

At first, Virginians had more rights than citizens in
England
 Initially
 This

did not have to own property to vote
changes
1670
 Free, white, male, property owners
New Arrivals

Women
“make men more settled”
 Struggles


Africans

Virginians needed laborers to grow tobacco


Some slaves for life
Others worked as servants in hopes of owning their own farms

There were free Africans, but eventually VA set up a system of laws
allowing white colonists to enslave Africans for life
 Slavery expands & free Africans lost rights
Quick Check S4




1. List 3 problems the Jamestown colony faced
after 1607.
2. Why was the Jamestown colony able to survive?
3. What were the origins of representative
government in the English colonies?
4. What new arrivals helped the Jamestown colony
thrive?
Section 5: Seeking Religions Freedom
Objectives



Describe how European states controlled or
regulated religion
Explain why the colonists at Plymouth wanted the
Mayflower Compact
Discuss how the Pilgrims were able to survive early
hardships
Think Back…

What were the motives of settlements of
Jamestown, and those of New Spain and New
France?
William Bradford & Plymouth

“Being thus passed the vast ocean…they had now no
friends to welcome them nor inns to entertain or refresh
their weather beaten bodies; no houses or much less
towns to repair to…And for the season it was winter,
and they that know the winters of that country know
them to be sharp and violent.”

Unlike the Jamestown colonists or the Spanish, the founders
of Plymouth wanted to practice their religion freely

They will become known as Pilgrims

They did not call themselves Pilgrims, but Bradford did write that
they were “pilgrims…[who} lifted up their eyes to the heavens, their
dearest country.”
European States & Religion


Protestant Reformation led to fierce religious wars
between Catholics & Protestants
Most European rulers believed that they could not
maintain order unless the state supported a
particular religion
 Chosen
religion was known as established church
 If
you did not follow that religion you were often persecuted
& would have to worship in secret

Imprisoned or executed if caught
Separatists Seek Religious Freedom

We call them Pilgrims, but during the time period
they were called Separatists
 They
were Protestant but wanted to separate from the
Church of England
 “They…were
hunted and persecuted on every side…For
some were taken and clapped up in prison, others had their
houses beset and watched night and day…and the most
were [glad] to flee and leave their houses.”


Moved to the Netherlands, but missed English way of life &
worried children were growing up Dutch, not English
http://www.history.com/topics/pilgrims/videos#deconstruct
ed-mayflower
Mayflower Compact

The charter they received allowed them to set up a
colony in VA, but they landed farther north
 The
terms of the charter would not apply
 Not all people on journey were “pilgrims”
 Needed to figure out who would govern them
 Pledged
themselves to unite into a “civil body politic” (gov’t)
& agreed to make and abide by laws that insured “the
general Good of the colony”

Established an important tradition
 Strengthened the English tradition of governing through
elected representatives
Connecting with Gov’t & Citizenship

Class work:
 1.
Why did passengers on the Mayflower sign a
compact?
 2. How did the Mayflower compact help ensure the
success of the Plymouth colony?
Tradition of Religious Freedom

“Pilgrims” were the 1st of many English settlers who
came to North America in order to worship freely
 The
desire to worship freely set up an important
precedent (example for others to follow)

Does not mean religious freedom spread throughout the colonies
 The idea of religious freedom for all would become a
cornerstone of American democracy
Early Hardships



Failed to bring enough food with them
Too late in season to grow crops (November)
Did not have enough time to build proper shelter
 About
½ of the settlers died of disease or starvation,
including their governor
 Elected
William Bradford
 Religious
faith remained strong
Help From Native Americans

Squanto: “a special instrument sent of God”
Brought Pilgrims seeds of native plants & showed them how
to plant them
 Taught settlers how to catch eels in nearby rivers


Pilgrims had a very good harvest in the fall

They believed God had given them this harvest so they set aside
a day for giving thanks

A tradition of giving thanks after each harvest season began
 Thanksgiving is a national holiday today
 http://www.history.com/topics/pilgrims/videos#history-of-thethanksgiving-holiday
Quick Check S5




1. Why did many religious groups in Europe face
persecution?
2. How did the Mayflower Compact resolve conflict
among the Plymouth settlers?
3. Why is the Mayflower Compact an important
document?
4. How did Native Americans help the Pilgrims
survive?
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