CH. 3 EXPLORATION & COLONIZATION Pgs. 66-99 Drill Corn Potatoes Squash Tomatoes Peanuts What do these foods have in common? List facts you know about Christopher Columbus Objectives Explain why the voyage of Christopher Columbus had a more lasting impact that earlier voyages Describe how Spanish explorers found a route across the Pacific Ocean Discuss how exploration set off a global exchange of goods and services Early Voyages to the Americas Many stories exist about early people from Europe or Asia sailing to the Americas, but real evidence has been hard to find Polynesians Asians canoes Chinese and Japanese fishing boats Vikings left most detailed records Leif Ericson Vinland settlement Unsure as to why they left Describe fierce battles with Skraelings (Inuits) Columbus’ Atlantic Crossing Voyage financed by King Ferdinand & Isabella 3 ships Sailors began to get impatient without seeing land Began following birds 2 A.M. October 12th spotted land Planted banner of Spain on the beach Convinced he was in the East Indies (really islands off the North American coast) Explored the “West Indies” Found gold Spain Authorizes Colonies Columbus gives king & queen many gifts to convince them of riches Columbus also believes that the Tainos could easily be converted to Christianity King & Queen were impressed Financed future voyages founded 1st Spanish colony (group of people who settle in a distant land but are still ruled by the gov’t of their native land) in the Americas on island of Hispaniola Columbus Claimed other lands for Spain (Central America, South America) Columbus Better explorer than governor Settlers of Hispaniola complained about his harsh rule Isabella sent an investigator Columbus He returned to Spain in chains died convinced he had reached Asia Drill Does Columbus deserve the honor or being remembered for discovering America? Yes or no? Explain. A Lasting Impact Does Columbus deserve the honor of being remembered as the one who “discovered” America? Yes and no We know Native Americans had “discovered” & settled these lands long before Columbus Europeans knew nothing of these “new” lands until Columbus told them Columbus’ voyages marked the beginning of lasting contact between Africa, Europe & the Americas Tragic results for many Native Americans, but it was a turning point (moment in history that marks a decisive change) for the Americas Europeans saw the Americas as a place to settle, trade & grow rich Spanish Cross the Pacific Vasco Nunez de Balboa Reached the Pacific Ocean Ferdinand Magellan Sailed across Pacific Ocean with 5 ships & 250 crew members Killed in the Philippine Islands Only 1 ship & 18 sailors returned to Spain 1st to circumnavigate (sail completely around) the world Voyage made Europeans aware of the true size of the Earth Class work P. 71 Chart Skills #1-2 A Global Cultural Exchange Global exchange of goods & ideas that started with the voyage of Columbus Columbian Exchange (p. 71) European Influences Positive & negative Domestic animals, bananas, disease Native American Influences Adopted Native American skills Ben Franklin admired the League of the Iroquois Valuable crops ½ the worlds crops today come from plants that were first grown in the Americas Allowed people’s diets to change & population to increase Connecting with Science & Technology Class work: 1. Why were corn, beans and squash often grown together? 2. How did Native Americans use corn? Connecting with Economics Class work 1. What effect did trade have for Native Americans? 2. Why did the French governors invite Native American tribal leaders to their cities? Quick Check S1 1. List 2 effects of Columbus’s voyage. 2. What route did Magellan’s expedition take? 3. List 2 European influences on the Americas. 4. List 2 Native Americans influences on the rest of the world. Class work: Sequencing P. 73 #1-4 Practice the Skill Drill P. 72 #6 Section 2: Spain Builds an Empire Objectives Describe how conquistadors defeated two Indian empires Name the areas the Spanish explored Explain how Spain settled its colonies Summarize what life was like for Native Americans under Spanish rule Spain Grows Rich… “What a troublesome thing it is to discover new lands. The risks we took, it is hardly possible to exaggerate.” “We came here to serve God and the king and also to get rich.” Spanish Conquistadors Rulers of Spain gave conquistadors permission to establish settlements in the Americas In return they agreed to give Spain 1/5 of any gold or treasure they captured Many were eager to win riches & glory Conquest of the Aztecs Moctezuma (Aztec emperor) Aztec sacred writings predicted the arrival of a whiteskinned god that would come from the east to rule the Aztecs Moctezuma welcomed Hernando Cortes as a guest Cortes took advantage He had already won support of other Indians who resented Aztec rule Cortes takes Moctezuma prisoner & eventually is killed Spanish control Tenochtitlan Conquest of the Incas Francisco Pizzaro captured the Incan leader Atahualpa Executed Without How him his leadership, Incan empire collapsed were the Spanish able to conquer two great empires with only a handful of soldiers? Reasons for Spanish Victories Superior military equipment Protected by steel armor & had guns Aztecs had clubs, bows & arrows, spears & had never seen horses Native Americans did not fight as hard as they might have Aztecs hesitated because they thought Spaniards were gods Many Indians died from European diseases Many historians believe disease alone would have ensured a Spanish victory Exploring Spanish Borderlands Present-day Florida to California Spanish expeditions into the borderlands met with little success Faced with strong Indian resistance in the north, Spain focused instead on bringing order to its empire in the south Class work P. 76 #2-3 Settling New Spain Spain initially let conquistadors rule lands they conquered, but they were poor rulers Spanish king took away their authority & set up a strong system of gov’t rule for the empire Law of the Indies: Stated how colonies should be organized & ruled 3 types of settlements: pueblos, presidios, & missions Pueblos & Presidios Pueblos Towns Centers Forts of farming & trade Plaza in center Shops & homes lined all sides of plaza Colony Santa Presidios of New Mexico Fe capital where soldiers lived High walls Shops, stables, food storehouses inside Protected the farmers who settled nearby St. Augustine, FL (1565) Missions Spanish believed they had the duty to convert Indians to Christianity Set up missions (religious settlements run by Catholic priests & friars) Forced Indians to live & work on missions 1st mission established in El Paso, TX Class work P. 77 Geo Skills #2-3 Society in New Spain Established in the Law of the Indies 4 social classes: Peninsulares Creoles Born in Americas to Spanish parents Wealthy, well-educated, owned farms, ranches Could not hold highest jobs Mestizos Born in Spain; highest jobs in gov’t & Church Owned lots of land; wealthy Spanish & Indian background Worked on farms, ranches owned by peninsulares & creoles Carpenters, shoemakers, bakers Indians Treated as a conquered people Kept in poverty Connecting with Culture Class work: 1. How were the social structures in Spain and Spanish America similar? 2. How did cultural diversity affect the social classes in Spanish America? Blend of Cultures Spanish Brought language, laws, religion & learning to colonies Founded the University of New Mexico Indian Influenced food & clothing Poncho Moccasins Built with adobe bricks Indian artists decorated walls with paintings of local traditions Harsh Life for Native Americans Spanish gov’t gave settlers encomiendas (land grants that included the right to demand labor or taxes from Native Americans) Hard labor Native Americans forced to work in mines that made Spain rich Many died Bartolome de Las Casas wanted reform Asked king to protect Indians Royal gov’t passed laws prohibiting enslavement of Native Americans & allowing them to own cattle & crops Few Spanish officials enforced it though Slave Trade Death toll increased but Spain needed workers Las Casas wanted to protect Native Americans Made Bring a lasting, tragic suggestion Africans as slaves to replace Indian laborers Thought they would be less likely to die of European diseases Las Casas came to regret his suggestion Enslaved Africans suffered just as much as Indians, but it was too late Slavery was a key part of the colonial economy Slave Trade Spreads Plantations (large estate farmed by many workers) Many countries began relying on slave labor to run these plantations Estimates of up to 10 million slaves transported between 1500s-1800s 500,000 will eventually come to the British colonies of North America Quick Check S2 1. Why were the Spanish able to conquer the Americas? 2. What areas of North America did the Spanish explore? 3. How did the Laws of the Indies regulate life in New Spain? 4. What was life like for Native Americans under Spanish rule? 5. Why did Spain bring Africans to the Americas? Drill Page 79 Geography Skills #1-2 Section 3 Colonizing North America Objectives Explain why England, France & the Netherlands sought a NW passage to Asia Discuss how the Protestant Reformation affected rivalries among European nations Describe how a rivalry developed between New France & New Netherland European Nations Spain had been growing rich from establishing new colonies after successful exploration England, France & the Netherlands envied Spain’s new empire They wanted colonies of their own Search for Northwest Passage Europeans looked for new ways to reach Asia Magellan’s route seemed long & difficult (had to travel around southern tip of South America) Wanted to find a waterway through or around North America John Cabot believed he found a “new-found-island” in Asia & thought his expedition was a success In reality he was off the coast of North America Newfoundland, Canada Searching for a NW Passage France Giovanni da Verrazano Journeyed North American coast from Carolinas to Canada Jacques Cartier Traveled on presentday St. Lawrence river England/Dutch Henry Hudson Entered present-day NY harbor Sailed up a river that is now named after him Made another voyage farther north (present-day Hudson Bay) Harsh winter & his crew rebelled Sent him, his son & loyal crew members off in a small boat (never seen again) Failure & Success None of the explorers found a NW passage Successfully mapped & explored many parts of North America Began How seeing $$$ can we profit from those resources? European nations will begin to compete for riches Religious differences heighten the rivalry Connecting with Geography Class work: 1. What obstacles did Dutch farmers have to overcome in New Netherland? 2. Why did most of the Dutch who ventured overseas become traders? Class work P. 82 Geography Skills #3 Religious Divisions Protestant Reformation Martin Luther publicly challenged the Catholic Church Supporters became known as Protestants Movement spreads and many different churches are formed Spain: Roman Catholic monarchy France: Roman Catholic monarchy England: Protestant queen Netherlands: most of the Dutch were Protestant Will all bring their religious conflicts with them Will compete for land & attempt to steal from each other New France (Background Info.) Samuel de Champlain Port Royal (1st permanent French settlement) Also built a trading post on a rocky cliff high above the St. Lawrence River Founded Quebec French profited from fishing, trapping & trading Traded with Native Americans to receive furs that were sold for high prices in Europe Catholic missionaries traveled with fur traders Established friendly relations with Native Americans Did not attempt to conquer them or interfere with Indian lands Expansion (Background) Indian guides told the French about the Mississippi River Father Jacques Marquette & fur trader Louis Joliet were led by Indian guides 700 miles down the river Robert de La Salle traveled down MI River to the Gulf of Mexico Named region Louisiana after French King Built forts to keep the Spanish & English out Fort Detroit, New Orleans (busy trading center) Slavery on planatations Gov’t of New France Governed like New Spain French king controlled gov’t directly; people had little freedom Council appointed by the king made all decision King had a hard time getting French to settle in New France New Netherland (Background) Peter Minuit led Dutch settlers to mouth of Hudson River Bought Manhattan Island from local Indians Called Busy port city Other settlement New Amsterdam Dutch settlers traveled farther north up Hudson River Colony of New Netherland Built trading posts, Ft. Orange (Present-day Albany) Rivalry Over Furs Dutch v. French Both sought Native American alliances (agreement between nations to aid & protect one another) Dutch & Iroquois French & Hurons Class work P. 85 Graphic Organizer Skills #1-2 Dutch Ways in America Ice skating St. Nicholas’s birthday Santa Claus Dutch words Boss Yacht Cookies Sleighs Impact on Native Americans European diseases killed thousands of Indians Rivalry over fur trade increased Indian warfare (European nations encouraged them to attack each other) Forced off of their lands Quick Check S3 1. Why did Europeans seeks a northern route to Asia? 2. What religious differences divided Europe? 3. How did religious differences in Europe affect the race for American colonies? 4. How did the rivalry between French and Dutch colonists affect Native Americans? Drill P. 90 Geography Skills #2-3 Drill Page 85 Graphic Organizer Skills #1-2 Objectives Identify challenges faced by the first English colonies Describe how VA began a tradition of representative gov’t Name the groups of people who made up the new arrivals in VA after 1619 Scenario You are establishing a colony. What rules or laws would you enact? Think Back… Spain had a hard time establishing & governing its colonies. Do you think the English will face similar problems? Why? Thomas Gates & Jamestown Full of plans about how to run colony Of 700 original colonists only 60 remained Discouraged Got on ships to return to England Luckily, a ship of supplies arrived Jamestown colony survived for now First English Colony England was envious of Spain’s success Sir Walter Raleigh Set sail & landed at Roanoke Within a year No food Quarrels with Indians Wanted to return to England Lost Colony John White was sent back to Roanoke with new settlers Supplies ran low Went back to England; left 117 colonists Not able to return to Roanoke for 3 years No one was there Researchers today believe the settlers were victims of the worst drought the region had seen in 8 centuries Came to this conclusion based on a study of moisture-sensitive tree rings from an 800 year old cypress tree Jamestown 20 years passed before England tries to establish another colony VA company of London received a charter (legal document giving certain rights to a person or company) from King James I Settle lands between present-day NC & the Potomac River Would be named Virginia Settlers in this colony would have the same rights as English citizens Disastrous Start 1607, 105 colonists arrived in VA Sailed into Chesapeake Bay & built homes along the James River Swampy ground Unhealthy water Starvation Mosquitoes malaria All people wanted to do was “dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold” Difficult to govern even with a 13 man council Frequently argued Did very little planning for the future Recovery Captain John Smith established strict rules & visited nearby Indian villages Must work if you want to eat Ran almost like a military outpost Indian chief, Powhatan, agreed to give them corn Does not last Indians refused to supply food & colonists took it by force Frequent, bloody warfare Even in peace the colony struggled to survive A Profitable Crop Jamestown’s economy improves Tobacco King James called pipe smoking a “vile custom” Regardless, 30,000 pounds were imported to England Helped save colony from falling apart Representative Government Wanted to establish a more stable gov’t to attract more settlers Male settlers were allowed to elect, burgesses (representatives to the gov’t) Met in an assembly: House of Burgesses Made laws for colony with the governor and his council English Traditions Magna Carta Parliament Show that the English had a history of believing that people had political rights VA’s Representative Tradition At first, Virginians had more rights than citizens in England Initially This did not have to own property to vote changes 1670 Free, white, male, property owners New Arrivals Women “make men more settled” Struggles Africans Virginians needed laborers to grow tobacco Some slaves for life Others worked as servants in hopes of owning their own farms There were free Africans, but eventually VA set up a system of laws allowing white colonists to enslave Africans for life Slavery expands & free Africans lost rights Quick Check S4 1. List 3 problems the Jamestown colony faced after 1607. 2. Why was the Jamestown colony able to survive? 3. What were the origins of representative government in the English colonies? 4. What new arrivals helped the Jamestown colony thrive? Section 5: Seeking Religions Freedom Objectives Describe how European states controlled or regulated religion Explain why the colonists at Plymouth wanted the Mayflower Compact Discuss how the Pilgrims were able to survive early hardships Think Back… What were the motives of settlements of Jamestown, and those of New Spain and New France? William Bradford & Plymouth “Being thus passed the vast ocean…they had now no friends to welcome them nor inns to entertain or refresh their weather beaten bodies; no houses or much less towns to repair to…And for the season it was winter, and they that know the winters of that country know them to be sharp and violent.” Unlike the Jamestown colonists or the Spanish, the founders of Plymouth wanted to practice their religion freely They will become known as Pilgrims They did not call themselves Pilgrims, but Bradford did write that they were “pilgrims…[who} lifted up their eyes to the heavens, their dearest country.” European States & Religion Protestant Reformation led to fierce religious wars between Catholics & Protestants Most European rulers believed that they could not maintain order unless the state supported a particular religion Chosen religion was known as established church If you did not follow that religion you were often persecuted & would have to worship in secret Imprisoned or executed if caught Separatists Seek Religious Freedom We call them Pilgrims, but during the time period they were called Separatists They were Protestant but wanted to separate from the Church of England “They…were hunted and persecuted on every side…For some were taken and clapped up in prison, others had their houses beset and watched night and day…and the most were [glad] to flee and leave their houses.” Moved to the Netherlands, but missed English way of life & worried children were growing up Dutch, not English http://www.history.com/topics/pilgrims/videos#deconstruct ed-mayflower Mayflower Compact The charter they received allowed them to set up a colony in VA, but they landed farther north The terms of the charter would not apply Not all people on journey were “pilgrims” Needed to figure out who would govern them Pledged themselves to unite into a “civil body politic” (gov’t) & agreed to make and abide by laws that insured “the general Good of the colony” Established an important tradition Strengthened the English tradition of governing through elected representatives Connecting with Gov’t & Citizenship Class work: 1. Why did passengers on the Mayflower sign a compact? 2. How did the Mayflower compact help ensure the success of the Plymouth colony? Tradition of Religious Freedom “Pilgrims” were the 1st of many English settlers who came to North America in order to worship freely The desire to worship freely set up an important precedent (example for others to follow) Does not mean religious freedom spread throughout the colonies The idea of religious freedom for all would become a cornerstone of American democracy Early Hardships Failed to bring enough food with them Too late in season to grow crops (November) Did not have enough time to build proper shelter About ½ of the settlers died of disease or starvation, including their governor Elected William Bradford Religious faith remained strong Help From Native Americans Squanto: “a special instrument sent of God” Brought Pilgrims seeds of native plants & showed them how to plant them Taught settlers how to catch eels in nearby rivers Pilgrims had a very good harvest in the fall They believed God had given them this harvest so they set aside a day for giving thanks A tradition of giving thanks after each harvest season began Thanksgiving is a national holiday today http://www.history.com/topics/pilgrims/videos#history-of-thethanksgiving-holiday Quick Check S5 1. Why did many religious groups in Europe face persecution? 2. How did the Mayflower Compact resolve conflict among the Plymouth settlers? 3. Why is the Mayflower Compact an important document? 4. How did Native Americans help the Pilgrims survive?