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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3
How do people adapt to
their environment?
Stone Age
Used stones to make tools and
weapons
Stone Age
Used stones to make tools and
weapons
Paleolithic means “old stone” or
Old Stone Age
Stone Age
Used stones to make tools and
weapons
Paleolithic means “old stone” or
Old Stone Age
2,500,000 B.C. – 8,000 B.C.
Nomads
Moved from place to place to
survive and search for food
Nomads
Moved from place to place to
survive and search for food
No roads, farms, or villages
Nomads
Moved from place to place to
survive and search for food
No roads, farms, or villages
Moved in groups of 20-30
Nomads
Moved from place to place to
survive and search for food
No roads, farms, or villages
Moved in groups of 20-30
Hunter – gatherers
Nomads
 Searched for buffalo, bison, wild goats,
reindeer, fish, nuts, berries, fruits, wild
grains, green plants.
Nomads
 Searched for buffalo, bison, wild goats,
reindeer, fish, nuts, berries, fruits, wild
grains, green plants.
 Men hunted large animals far from camp –
used clubs to kill or pushed animals off a
cliff. Then learned to make tools or
weapons. They also set traps.
Nomads
 Searched for buffalo, bison, wild goats,
reindeer, fish, nuts, berries, fruits, wild
grains, green plants.
 Men hunted large animals far from camp –
used clubs to kill or pushed animals off a
cliff. Then learned to make tools or
weapons. They also set traps.
 Women stayed at camp-usually near
water- and watched after the kids and
searched for nuts, berries, and grains.
Nomads
 Searched for buffalo, bison, wild goats,
reindeer, fish, nuts, berries, fruits, wild
grains, green plants.
 Men hunted large animals far from camp –
used clubs to kill or pushed animals off a
cliff. Then learned to make tools or
weapons. They also set traps.
 Women stayed at camp-usually near
water- and watched after the kids and
searched for nuts, berries, and grains.
 Men and women worked together equally.
Technology
 Tools & methods to perform tasks
 Made devices from hard stone called
“flint”
 Made spears, bows, arrows, and fishhooks
 Used animal hides for clothing and shelter
or stayed in caves
Technology
FIRE – used for warmth, light, to
scare off wild animals, chase
animals from bushes, and cooking
Used by rubbing two pieces of wood
together to cause friction.
Language & Art
Paleolithic people started
expressing themselves
through spoken word, like
we use today, and art.
Language & Art
Paleolithic people started
expressing themselves
through spoken word, like
we use today, and art.
There was still NO WRITTEN
word. Paleolithic people
expressed ideas through
cave drawings (symbols,
drawings, ect)
Ice Ages
 Long periods of extreme cold
 Threatened the lives of humans
 They had to learn to use more fat in their
diet
 Made sturdier shelters and warmer clothes
during these extreme cold times
Ice Ages
 As the ice pieces grew larger, the sea levels lowered,
exposing a strip of dry land that connected Asia to North
America. This was known as a “land bridge”
Ice Ages
 As the ice pieces grew larger, the sea levels lowered,
exposing a strip of dry land that connected Asia to North
America. This was known as a “land bridge”
 The land bridge was used by people and animals to
travel and settle in different regions
Ice Ages
 As the ice pieces grew larger, the sea
levels lowered, exposing a strip of dry
land that connected Asia to North
America. This was known as a “land
bridge”
 The land bridge was used by people and
animals to travel and settle in different
regions
 The ice age forced Paleolithic people to
adapt to their environment by changing
their thinking. It lasted 90000 years and
ended between 9000-8000 BC.
Neolothic Age: The
Agricultural Revolution
The Neolithic Age began when
some, not all people began
staying in one place to grow
grains and vegetables;
domesticate or tame animals
for human use (transporting
goods, providing meat, milk, or
wool
Neolothic Age: The
Agricultural Revolution
 The Neolithic Age began when some, not all people
began staying in one place to grow grains and
vegetables; domesticate or tame animals for human use
(transporting goods, providing meat, milk, or wool
 Neolithic age lasted been 8000-4000 BC
Neolothic Age: The
Agricultural Revolution
 The Neolithic Age began when some, not all people
began staying in one place to grow grains and
vegetables; domesticate or tame animals for human use
(transporting goods, providing meat, milk, or wool
 Neolithic age lasted been 8000-4000 BC
 Neolithic means “new stone”: stone tools were created
and used during this time
Agricultural Revolution
Systematic farming (growing food
on a regular basis) is known as
Agricultural Revolution
Agricultural Revolution
 Systematic farming (growing food on a regular basis) is
known as Agricultural Revolution
 Being able to grow and constant food supply allowed
people to settle communities because the population
was growing at a faster rate.
Agricultural Revolution
 Systematic farming (growing food on a regular basis) is
known as Agricultural Revolution
 Being able to grow and constant food supply allowed
people to settle communities because the population
was growing at a faster rate.
 Some historians consider the Agricultural Revolution to
be the most important event in human history
Farming Timeline
Who
When
Plants
Animals
SW Asia
8000 BC
Wheat/Barley
Pigs, goats, cows,
sheep
Nile River
6000 BC
Wheat/Barley
India
8000-5000 BC
Wheat/Barley
Africa
6000 BC
Yams/bananas
China
6000 BC
Millet/rice
Dogs, Pigs
Central America
7000-5000 BC
Squash/potatoes
Chicken, Dogs
Life in the Neolithic Age
 People settled in villages near plants and water
(especially rivers)
 They built permanent homes
 Jericho is one of the oldest Neolithic Communities
 Catahuyuk – Story Time!
Life in Neolithic Age
 As populations grew so did food supplies
 Increased food supplies allowed communities to trade
certain foods for others.
 It also allowed for people to take on or specialize in
different jobs other than farming
 Weapon making
 Jewelry making
 Pottery to store grains
 Basket/clothes making
Life in the Neolithic Age
Gender Roles
Men
Women
`Worked in fields
`Farmed and herded
animals
`bore children
`made clothes,
`managed supplies,
`performed other tasks
Tools Created
 Rakes
 Sickles to cut grain
 Millstones to grind flour
 Some regions began working with copper
Tools Created
CRAFTSPEOPLE IN WESTERN
ASIA DISCOVERED THAT
MIXING COPPER AND TIN
FORMED BRONZE. (3000 BC)THIS MARKED THE BEGINNING
OF THE BRONZE AGE!
Emerging Empires
 By the beginning of the Bronze Age,
communities were widespread.
 4 great river valley civilizations were
formed by the year 3000 BC
All great civilizations share similar
characteristics
Emerging Empires
 By the beginning of the Bronze Age,
communities were widespread.
 4 great river valley civilizations were
formed by the year 3000 BC
1. Mesopotamia
All great civilizations share similar
characteristics
Emerging Empires
 By the beginning of the Bronze Age,
communities were widespread.
 4 great river valley civilizations were
formed by the year 3000 BC
1. Mesopotamia
2. Egypt
All great civilizations share similar
characteristics
Emerging Empires
 By the beginning of the Bronze Age,
communities were widespread.
 4 great river valley civilizations were formed
by the year 3000 BC
1. Mesopotamia
2. Egypt
3. India
All great civilizations share similar characteristics
Emerging Empires
 By the beginning of the Bronze Age,
communities were widespread.
 4 great river valley civilizations were formed
by the year 3000 BC
1. Mesopotamia
2. Egypt
3. India
4. China
All great civilizations share similar characteristics
Shared Characteristics
Developed cities and formed
governments
First governments formed were
known as monarchy’s (ruled by a
King or Queen)
Created armies
Religion
Early people believed that god’s
were responsible for a communities
survival
Rulers claimed that their power
came from approval of god’s
Social Structure
 Based on the type of work a person did and the amount
of power or wealth they had.
Highest
Rulers, priests,
government
officials,
warriors
Middle
Farmers,
artisans,
craftspeople
Lowest
Enslaved
people who
were captured
in war
Writing and Art
 People used symbols instead of letters and
words to keep accurate records and
preserve stories
 Artists created paintings and sculptures
portraying gods and forces of nature
 Massive buildings were designed as places
of worship or burial tombs for kings
Auteur
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