Nervous system “peripheral” just means on the outside, or NOT central…like your “peripheral vision” Central N.S. (brain and spinal cord) Peripheral N.S. Autonomic N.S. (controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands like The heart and lungs) Somatic N.S. (controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles) Sympathetic N.S. (arousing) Parasympathetic N.S. (calming) ..remember how “soma” means body? The Cerebral Cortex: is the brain’s ultimate control and information processing center; contains all the interconnected neural cells that cover cerebral hemispheres. Contains lobes. Frontal Lobe: involved in speaking and muscle movements along with making plans and judgments. Includes the motor cortex: controls voluntary movements. Parietal Lobe: includes the somatosensory cortex which allows you to register and process body sensations (sense of touch). Occipital Lobe: includes the visual areas involved in seeing. _____________________ o Temporal Lobe: includes the auditory areas which are involved in hearing. Hindbrain: medulla pons reticular formation cerebellum Brainstem: lower base - connects the spinal cord to the brain - oldest part of the brain - responsible for automatic survival functions. Medulla: controls heartbeat and breathing Cerebellum: responsible for balance and movement - the “little brain” - attached to the rear of the brainstem. Pons: connects the lower and mid brain regions - regulates brain during sleep and dreaming. Reticular Formation: helps control arousal. What is the function of the reticular formation? The reticular formation's function is to regulate sleeping, alertness and focus. It controls your body's sleep-wake cycle, how you focus on tasks and how awake and alert you are. The reticular formation also has an effect on sexual arousal, and portions of it can affect posture, balance and motor function. Midbrain: cells. contains clusters of nerve it is the Mid brain that controls the auditory, eye movement, vision and body movement. Forebrain: most important part of the brain consists of: thalamus, limbic system, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex (which contains the lobes of the brain.) Thalamus: the “sensory switchboard,” or “the relay station.” All auditory (hearing), visual, taste, and touch signals pass through it --> it relays signals to the appropriate part of the brain. The Limbic System: system plays a major role in controlling emotion and drives (sex, hunger, etc.) Hippocampus: involved in the formation of memories. Hypothalamus: involved in a variety of drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sex. Pleasure/reward center. Controls the pituitary gland. Pituitary Gland: controlled by the hypothalamus regulates growth - regulates other glands in the endocrine system. The “master gland.” Amygdala: neural clusters linked to emotions like aggression and fear. Match the picture with the part of the limbic system that is related to it. amygdala hypothalamus hippocampus pituitary gland Brain specialization How did Gage’s accident affect him? Association Areas: areas of cerebral cortex not involved in motor or sensory processes. Makes up largest portion of cortex which is involved in higher mental functions such as learning, memory, thinking, and speaking. More intelligent animals have increased "uncommitted" or association areas of the cortex. These vast areas of the brain are responsible for integrating and acting on information received and processed by sensory areas. Aphasia: impairment of language, usually caused by damage to the left hemisphere to the brain either in Broca’s or Wernicke’s area: Broca’s Area: an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Broca’s Aphasia Wernicke’s Area: an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension Wernicke's Aphasia Plasticity: the brain’s capacity for modification as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development brain plasticity KEY NAMES Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior 1824-1880 key name Discovered that a structure in the left frontal lobe controls language production. This structure is now known as “Broca’s” 1848-1905 key name Discovered that a structure in the left temporal lobe controls language comprehension. This structure is now known as “Wernicke’s” Wernike's patient 1913-1994 key name 1981 Nobel Prize Winner (medicine) for split-brain research 1939-Present key name Worked under Roger Sperry made important advances in our understanding of functional lateralization in the brain and how the cerebral hemispheres communicate with one another http://bigthink.com/users/michaelgazzani ga Corpus Callosum: large bundle of neural fibers that allows the two sides of the brain to communicate. Carries messages between the two hemispheres. Girl with half brain . Cerebral dominance refers to these tendencies for each brain hemisphere to exert control over different functions, such as language (left) or perception of spatial relationships (right). Split Brain Movie Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere • Spontaneous speaking and writing • Repetitive but not spontaneous speaking • Responses to complex commands • Responses to simple commands • Facial recognition • Memory for shapes and music • Word recognition • Memory for words and numbers • Sequences of movements • Feelings of anxiety • Positive emotion • Spatial interpretation • Emotional responsiveness • Negative emotion The Endocrine System: the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; secretes hormones into bloodstream. Hormones: cousins of neurotransmitters; chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another. Adrenal Glands: endocrine glands above the kidneys that secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.