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Chapter 2 pt. 2: Da Brain

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Nervous
system
“peripheral” just means on the
outside, or NOT central…like your
“peripheral vision”
Central N.S.
(brain and
spinal cord)
Peripheral N.S.
Autonomic N.S.
(controls
self-regulated action of
internal organs and glands like
The heart and lungs)
Somatic N.S.
(controls
voluntary movements of
skeletal muscles)
Sympathetic N.S.
(arousing)
Parasympathetic N.S.
(calming)
..remember
how “soma”
means body?
The Cerebral Cortex: is the brain’s ultimate control and
information processing center; contains all the
interconnected neural cells that cover cerebral
hemispheres. Contains lobes.
Frontal Lobe: involved in speaking and muscle
movements along with making plans and judgments.
Includes the motor cortex: controls voluntary
movements.
Parietal Lobe: includes the somatosensory cortex
which allows you to register and process body
sensations (sense of touch).
 Occipital
Lobe:
includes the visual
areas involved in
seeing.
_____________________
o Temporal Lobe:
includes the
auditory areas
which are involved
in hearing.
Hindbrain:
medulla
pons
reticular
formation
cerebellum

Brainstem: lower base - connects the spinal cord to
the brain - oldest part of the brain - responsible for
automatic survival functions.
Medulla:
controls
heartbeat and
breathing

Cerebellum: responsible for
balance and movement - the
“little brain” - attached to the
rear of the brainstem.

Pons: connects the lower and
mid brain regions - regulates
brain during sleep and
dreaming.

Reticular Formation: helps
control arousal.
What is the function of the reticular
formation?
The reticular formation's function is to regulate
sleeping, alertness and focus. It controls your
body's sleep-wake cycle, how you focus on
tasks and how awake and alert you are. The
reticular formation also has an effect on sexual
arousal, and portions of it can affect posture,
balance and motor function.
 Midbrain:
cells.
contains clusters of nerve
it is the Mid brain that
controls the auditory, eye
movement, vision and body
movement.

Forebrain: most important part of the brain consists of: thalamus, limbic system, hypothalamus,
and cerebral cortex (which contains the lobes of the
brain.)

Thalamus: the “sensory switchboard,” or “the relay
station.” All auditory (hearing), visual, taste, and
touch signals pass through it --> it relays signals to
the appropriate part of the brain.

The Limbic System: system plays a major role in
controlling emotion and drives (sex, hunger, etc.)

Hippocampus: involved in the formation of
memories.

Hypothalamus: involved in a variety of drives, such
as hunger, thirst, and sex. Pleasure/reward center.
Controls the pituitary gland.

Pituitary Gland: controlled by the hypothalamus regulates growth - regulates other glands in the
endocrine system. The “master gland.”

Amygdala: neural clusters linked to emotions like
aggression and fear.
Match the picture with the part of the limbic system
that is related to it.
amygdala
hypothalamus
hippocampus
pituitary gland
Brain specialization
 How
did Gage’s
accident affect
him?
Association Areas:

areas of cerebral cortex not involved in motor or
sensory processes. Makes up largest portion of
cortex which is involved in higher mental functions
such as learning, memory, thinking, and speaking.


More intelligent
animals have
increased
"uncommitted" or
association areas
of the cortex.
These vast areas of
the brain are
responsible for
integrating and
acting on
information
received and
processed by
sensory areas.

Aphasia: impairment of language, usually caused by
damage to the left hemisphere to the brain either in
Broca’s or Wernicke’s area:
Broca’s Area: an area of
the left frontal lobe that
directs the muscle
movements involved in
speech
Broca’s Aphasia
Wernicke’s Area: an area of
the left temporal lobe
involved in language
comprehension
Wernicke's Aphasia

Plasticity: the brain’s
capacity for modification as
evident in brain reorganization
following damage (especially
in children) and in
experiments on the effects of
experience on brain
development
brain plasticity
KEY NAMES
Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
1824-1880
key name

Discovered that a structure in the left frontal
lobe controls language production.
This structure is now known as “Broca’s”
1848-1905
key name

Discovered that a structure in the left
temporal lobe controls language
comprehension.
This structure is now known as “Wernicke’s”
Wernike's patient
1913-1994
key name

1981 Nobel Prize Winner (medicine) for
split-brain research
1939-Present
key name



Worked under Roger Sperry
made important advances in our
understanding of functional lateralization in
the brain and how the cerebral hemispheres
communicate with one another
http://bigthink.com/users/michaelgazzani
ga

Corpus Callosum: large
bundle of neural fibers that
allows the two sides of the
brain to communicate. Carries
messages between the two
hemispheres.

Girl with half brain
.

Cerebral dominance refers to these tendencies for
each brain hemisphere to exert control over different
functions, such as language (left) or perception of
spatial relationships (right).
Split Brain Movie
Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere
• Spontaneous
speaking and writing
• Repetitive but not
spontaneous speaking
• Responses to
complex commands
• Responses to simple
commands
• Facial recognition
• Memory for shapes
and music
• Word recognition
• Memory for words
and numbers
• Sequences of
movements
• Feelings of anxiety
• Positive emotion
• Spatial interpretation
• Emotional
responsiveness
• Negative emotion

The Endocrine
System: the body’s
“slow” chemical
communication system;
secretes hormones into
bloodstream.

Hormones: cousins of neurotransmitters; chemical
messengers, mostly those manufactured by the
endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and
affect another.

Adrenal Glands: endocrine glands above the
kidneys that secrete the hormones epinephrine
(adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline),
which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
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