Christianity Challenged The Great Schism While the Roman church evolved under the pope, the Greek-speaking eastern Roman Empire followed a different evolution. Differences in history led to the first major schism or separation of the Church. The Greek church looked to an emperor and a patriarch in Constantinople. The Greek church maintained authentic tradition, while the pope asserted the ancient primacy of Rome, he was the supreme authority of the entire Church. Conflict arose over differences in custom, rule and liturgical expression. The Differences The Christian Church split into the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church Each Church took on its distinctive customs, practices, and emphases. The essential doctrine remained the same, the major issue was the role of the papacy in church authority. In the Western Church, the popes were recognized as the successors of Saint Peter – the symbols of authority. The Eastern Church The Christian Church in the East became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church. Church governance is in the hands of local patriarchs and bishops. The patriarch of Constantinople is looked to as having primacy of honour, but not actual authority. The Eastern Church held to the practice of the early Christian communities: the bishops were selected by their local communities, and each local bishop was considered equal to all other bishops in authority. Western bishops added a line (“the Holy Spirit…who proceeded from the Father and the Son”) to the Nicene Creed without consulting eastern patriarchs. The Filioque Controversy Filioque means “from the son” Centers on the relative divinity of the Father and the Son In the place where the original Nicene Creed reads "We believe in the Holy Spirit ... who proceeds from the Father", the amended version reads "We believe in the Holy Spirit ... who proceeds from the Father and the Son" The Son and the Spirit are said to have their eternal origin from the Father; the Son, the eternal is "generated" ("born" or "begotten") of the Father, while the Spirit "proceeds" from the Father. The essential matter in the filioque clause is a desire to protect the deity of the Holy Spirit. Other Differences Other differences: The Western Church, until much later, used only Latin in its rituals, however the Orthodox churches used whatever language the local people spoke. In Roman Catholicism, priests are required to be celibate; Orthodox priests are not. Different calendars of religious feasts. Orthodox Churches use leavened bread; the Catholic Church does not. The 7th and 8th centuries saw the rapid expansion of Islam – led to the disappearance of Christianity in Syria, Egypt and North Africa (weakened the Eastern Church). Along with these differences and the Filioque Clause, which proved to be the final straw, a mutual excommunication between Rome and Constantinople took place in 1054. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Basic Causes of the Schism of 1054 Leadership: The Roman pope versus the emperor or patriarch in Constantinople Language: Latin vs. Greek as the official language of the Religion. Many of the original New Testament books were written in Greek. Customs: different customs and practices related to historical traditions such as the singing of major portions of the mass. Art: cultural differences were reflected in the art. Doctrine: The eastern rite uses doctrine only from the first seven Church councils because they all occurred in the East. Schism between East and West The Eastern Orthodox Church Today Includes the Greek, Serbian, Russian and other eastern churches Has about 250 million members Observes the same 7 sacraments as Catholicism, but limits its doctrines to those set out by seven councils held prior to 787. Focus is on the Incarnation, a mystical union with god through faith in Christ Worship includes strict fasts and other disciplines The Use of Icons in the Orthodox Church They were used to help teach the faithful about God. Icons kept the mind from wandering and helped focus one's attention on prayer. The icon is of particular importance for the Orthodox Church since it is seen as the dwelling place of God's grace, creating in the faithful a sense of the presence of God. The faithful do not worship the wood and paint, but deeply respect and venerate the person depicted. The Medieval Era: Crusades and Contact with the Jewish and Muslim Worlds Beginning in 700 AD, much of the formerly Christian Roman Empire, especially in North Africa and the Middle East, was conquered by advancing Muslim armies The majority of inhabitants in these countries converted to Islam, with some Christian minority pockets remaining Jewish communities, after initial conflict with Islam, were left to live in relative peace within the growing Muslim Empire After the fall of Rome (476 AD) philosophy split three ways: ARISTOTLELEANISM – Aristotle’s teachings were lost to western Europe but preserved, translated into Arabic and commented upon by Averroës and Avicenna in the Muslim culture PLATONISM – Plato’s philosophy dominated the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire, centered in Constantinople NEO-PLATONISM – Following St. Augustine’s example, western (Roman) philosophy was influenced by Plotinus until the Crusades and re-discovery of Aristotle. IMPORTANT FACTS As we can see, by 750 AD, much of the former Roman Empire was conquered by Muslim rulers Pockets of Christian communities remain in these countries to this day (e.g. Iraq, Egypt) Europe contended with a Muslim threat to its territory until the late 1800’s Turkish armies threatened the gates of Vienna, Austria in 1699, leaving behind bags of coffee beans – which explains why the beverage is so popular in the city to this day! In 800 AD, the Frankish king CHARLEMAGNE was crowned Holy Roman Emperor He fought a border war along the Pyrenees against the Muslim rulers of Spain Parts of Spain were ruled by Muslims until 1492 when King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella expelled the last Moors (along with Spain’s last remaining Jews Muslim Ottoman Turkish armies conquered Constantinople, the Eastern Roman capital in 1453 The Balkans, including the former Yugoslavia, were ruled by Muslims until the early 1900’s, which explain the presence of Muslims in Bosnia In 1095, Pope Urban II called on Christian knights in Europe to “take up the Cross” in order to liberate the Holy Land and its Christian sites – in particular the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem – from “infidel” hands Over the course of the next 300 years, several Crusades re-established European contact with the Arab world, allowing the West to rediscover knowledge it had lost during the “Dark Ages”, but which had been preserved in the Arab world, e.g. the writings of Aristotle, algebra, medicine, etc. Pope Urban’s Speech "With what reproaches will the Lord overwhelm us if you do not aid those who, with us, profess the Christian religion! Let those who have been accustomed unjustly to wage private warfare against the faithful now go against the infidels and end with victory this war which should have been begun long ago. Behold! on this side will be the sorrowful and poor, on that, the rich; on this side, the enemies of the Lord, on that, his friends." The Capture of Jerusalem On July 15, 1099, Frankish armies captured Jerusalem. Its Jewish and Muslim inhabitants were slaughtered. Jerusalem in Crusader Times The First Crusade began in 1099 Jerusalem was lost in 1187 The Eighth and Last occurred in 1271 Europe would never be the same as a result of its contact with the Jewish and Muslim world The Muslim world would never forget either! The Crusades The Crusades (1099-1290's) were attempts by European Christians to recapture the Holy Land (Palestine) from Muslims. The Effects of the Crusades New trade routes to the east stimulated the European economy Crusaders brought Muslim culture and technology back to Europe. For example: Arabic Numeral System we now use, scientific knowledge – Astrology, etc. Greek classics, particularly the philosophical tradition of Aristotle, were re-introduced to European universities. The Causes of the Reformation Changes European Society The expansion of the European economy as a result of the Crusades caused a number of changes in European society. Growth of cities and towns along with decline in rural feudalism Emergence of a middle class who were involved in commerce. People were becoming financially independent and were becoming educated. A Cultural Renaissance resulted – new thought, etc. Invention of the printing press made information (particularly the Bible) available to the educated middle classes. Central authority of the Feudal Lord no longer a part of the lives of everyday people. People more selfdetermined. Widespread knowledge of the Bible led to calls for reform and/or purification of the Church. Increase in the number of poor people living on the outskirts of the cities. By the end of the 15th Century modern nation states were emerging which were seeking to be free from central powers of the past – Papacy, the Germanic Empire, etc. I.Changes in the Church Changes in European society meant changes & challenges for the Church: The Church was rich, powerful, and served mainly the middle class and nobility. Church was out of touch with the poor. Church institution was no longer meeting the needs of the majority of the people. Abuses in the Church: Abuses in the Mass & Liturgies Abuses in the Clergy – Clergy was poorly trained, etc. Abuses by Popes Problem of Indulgences. Abuses in the Church Selling Indulgences: The Church, in order to raise money to build St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, had begun to allow people to purchase forgiveness in advance. Church Power: Many people felt that the Church, under the authority of the Pope, had too much power in the world. They wanted the Church to stick more closely to spiritual matters. This was the beginning of a separation between Church and State which today has gone in the opposite extreme. Corrupt Clergy: The clergy of the Church were corrupt and not living up to Christian Standards. They were accused of simony (bribes), nepotism (hiring relatives), and having concubines (mistresses). There was too much of a focus on saints and relics. It was argued that the liturgy (mass) had lost a sense of the spiritual and sacred. The Call for Reformation The pressure for reform came to a head in Germany through the monk Martin Luther (1483-1546). Luther was born in Germany in 1483, graduated from the university of Erfurt, studied law. Experienced God after a near-death experience, made him join a monastery, ordained at age 24, and sent to the University of Wittenberg to teach moral theology. Earned his doctorate in moral theology and was made professor of biblical studies at Wittenberg. He took his religious commitment seriously and studied the Bible, he became convinced that reforms were necessary if the Catholic Church was to be the Church founded by Jesus. The Lutheran Reformation Luther was repelled by the Catholic custom of buying indulgences. In 1517, needing money, the pope authorized a sale of indulgences – a piece of paper stating that the pope using the power vested in him by Christ, forgave sins in return for a certain sum of money. Led to the belief that they could buy their way into heaven. In Luther’s mind, these same people forgot that it is through God’s grace that Christians are saved – not through their own efforts. Luther Outraged Luther believed that the Catholic Church had turned away from the Christian Scriptures The event that began the Reformation was the posting of Luther’s Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral on 31 October 1517, which were soon circulated throughout Europe. Church officials in Rome were strongly opposed to Luther and his theses. He began to say that total change was needed and in particular that the authority of the papacy must be ended. Luther’s Views Luther’s theses included: 1. Human beings are saved by faith alone and not by any works they do. 2. The Church's sale of Indulgences was wrong. 3. Infallibility of the Pope: Luther challenged the authority of the Pope. 4. Scripture is more important than Tradition. 5. Priests should marry. Church officials saw Luther’s theses as heretical, his beliefs included: The Absolute Authority of the Bible: God’s Word in the Bible is the final authority that must be followed. Justification by Faith Alone: Only by the grace of God can we be saved. Salvation came from a person’s faith not actions. The Priesthood of All Believers: Priests are not mediators between God and humankind. All humans have the same status before god and the same responsibilities to study the Bible and to transform the world into the Kingdom of God. 1. 2. The Controversies Luther The Catholic Church Authority of People interpret scripture, the Bible human teachings can be taken less seriously. The church is the only true interpreter of the Bible and its creeds and traditions must be observed. Salvation God gives grace and salvation freely to undeserving humans, loving acts are evidence of the Holy Spirit in our lives. Good works are a necessary response to grace and are signs of their faith in Jesus. (“faith by itself, if it has no works, is dead” James 2:17) Priesthood All humans have equal status before God and are equally responsible to study God’s word. Priests were not special mediators. Priest was a mediator between God and humankind – taking the place of Jesus, (Peter passed on the duty to priest and bishops) The Protestants In 1521, Luther was excommunicated and outlawed by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, although he never intended to break away from the Catholic Church. Luther’s reforms took root in many German states, he left the priesthood and a denomination of Christianity emerged that was eventually called Lutheran. The Emperor tried to force the German princes to reject Luther, but they objected and thus Luther’s supporters became known as Protestants; the name has been used ever since. The Protestant movement spread throughout much of northern Europe, Scandinavia, and North America. Churches also sprang up in Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Other Reforms John Calvin Studied law and theology at the University of Paris. Influenced by Luther, he broke with the R.C.C and escaped from France (persecutions of reformers had begun) Developed a criticism of Catholicism more thorough than Luther He banned almost all forms of religious ceremony, statues, shrines, and devotions, all of which he called idolatory. The Catholic mass was especially forbidden. Calvin’s beliefs Calvin preached the doctrine of predestination, the idea that God has preplanned everything that happens – especially the salvation of individuals. God had determined from all eternity who would be saved and who would be condemned to eternal suffering, and there was nothing one could do to win God’s salvation. “For all are not created in equal condition; rather, eternal life is foreordained for some, eternal damnation for others.” Believed in creating a godly state, cities and government should follow Christian teachings. If people followed God’s law and worked hard, they would prosper; this prosperity in turn, would surely be a sign that they were predestined. He did not believe in the real presence of Jesus in the bread and wine. Calvin’s beliefs 1. Predestination: The omnipotence of God and the salvation of the elect by God's grace alone, basically the theory of predestination. The "elected" are known as "saints" in the Calvinist faith. Calvin denied that human beings were capable of free will. 2. Scripture: Calvin also stated that the writings of the scriptures are to be taken literally. 3. Structure: Following the history of the earliest church recounted in the New Testament book, The Acts of the Apostles, Calvin organized the church of Geneva into four levels: A. Pastors: These were five men who exercised authority over religious matters in Geneva B. Teachers: This was a larger group whose job it was to teach doctrine to the population. C. Elders: The Elders were twelve men (after the twelve Apostles) who were chosen by the municipal council; their job was to oversee everything that everybody did in the city. D. Deacons: Modelled after the Seven in Acts 6-8, the deacons were appointed to care for the sick, the elderly, the widowed, and the poor. Followers of Calvin John Knox was a dedicated pupil of Calvin, and returned with these views to Scotland. He eventually restructured the Church of Scotland, forming Presbyterianism. French Calvinists, called Huguenots, grew in numbers despite intense persecutions. In Holland, Calvinism became connected with the attempts by the Dutch to overthrow oppression by Catholic Spain. The majority of early immigrants to America were Calvinists, most notably the Puritans. Protestant Church Today It is the predominant form of Christianity in northern Europe, England, Scotland, Australia, the United States, and Canada. Calvin’s lasting legacy is called the Protestant work ethic, the belief that although good works could not help one to achieve salvation, work itself (and the prosperity it earned) was proof that one was in God’s grace. Today’s Presbyterian Churches hold that no one is hindered from accepting God’s grace and salvation, nor is anyone condemned at birth. The Church of England The Anglicans (Episcopalians in the U.S.), were formed when the Church of England broke from Rome in 1536. King Henry VIII needed a male heir to his throne, and since his wife had only given him a daughter, he asked the pope for permission to divorce her. The pope could not grant this divorce, for several political reasons, (did not want to anger Emperor Charles V) so the king rejected papal authority and named himself and his successors the head of the Church of England. The statements of faith and practice of the English Church are very Catholic, Henry rejected Lutheran teachings and never considered himself a Protestant. The key issue was the matter of authority over the national Church in England. The Anglican Church has spread around the globe with about 65 million members. Anglican Reformations Methodism: started by John and Charles Wesley (Anglican priests), who began preaching to the working classes of industrial England. Their message: there is a warm and loving God who wants to save everyone from sin and hell. They disagreed with predestination. The Baptists: Rejected infant baptism, believed only adults could freely assent to faith in Jesus. Also believed that the end of the world was coming soon. Pentecostalism: believe in a baptism of the Holy Spirit, speaking in tongues and healing. They stress individual revelation and action under the power of the Holy Spirit. The Catholic Reformation Because the Roman Catholic Church had received so many challenges, a decision was made to re-examine the Church and its teachings. This period of time is known as the Catholic Reformation. This reform was dealt with at the Council of Trent (1545-1565). The Council of Trent Purpose of the Council of Trent: bring the Reformers back into the Catholic Church clarify and define basic Catholic teachings and beliefs Outcomes: The Reformers did NOT return. Many of the abuses in the Church were corrected. Beliefs and teachings were clarified (ie. both faith and good works are equally need for salvation; celibacy of priest, supremacy of the Papacy, authority of tradition) Papal infallibility and Recognition of the 7 sacraments New religious communities formed to implement these reforms. For example, The Society of Jesus was founded (1534) by Ignatius Loyola to spread the Catholic faith through education and missionary work. Today, there are over 20,000 Jesuits who continue this work. Other Features: The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) - a war throughout Europe between Protestants and Catholics. The Church remained divided at the end of the war. Spain - Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross Mystics = people full of direct experience of God. They established the Carmelite orders of priests and nuns. The Modern Period The Modern Period was ushered in during the 17th century, and the concept of human reasoning was stressed. Religion was diminished by an increasing emphasis in the belief that people could determine their own destiny and had little need for God. Christianity expanded overseas, to the Far East and South Africa. Reformation in the Modern Period Modern Catholicism has been strongly affected by the teaching of the Second Vatican Council. (Vatican Council II) A world-wide council of bishops convened by Pope John XXIII, occurring from 19621965. Made major strides in recognizing the validity of the existence of the various religions in the world. Encouraged the participation of Catholics in humanitarian efforts. Among the major changes was the shift from the use of Latin in the Mass to the use of the vernacular, the reception of the Eucharist in the hand, the addition of lay ministers within the Church, and a shift in the seating arrangements in the churches. The Call to Unity: Ecumenism Ecumenism: The promotion of worldwide unity among Christians. “The restoration of unity among all Christians is one of the principal concerns of the Second Vatican Council. Christ the Lord founded one church and one Church only. However, many Christian communions present themselves to [people] as the true inheritors of Jesus Christ; all indeed profess to be followers of the Lord but they differ in mind and go their different ways, as if Christ himself were divided (Decree on Ecumenism, number 1) Decree on Ecumenism: Catholics should avoid judgments or actions that misrepresent non-Catholics. Study of other faiths to promote common understandings Catholics should cooperate with other Christians in service to humankind Catholics need to renew their faith through study, prayer, discussion of the Word of God, and participation in the sacraments.