close

Se connecter

Se connecter avec OpenID

Chapter 2

IntégréTéléchargement
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
GROUNDED THEORY
Grounded
Theory 1
Grounded Theory:
Definition and Background
Grounded
Theory 2


The purpose of grounded theory is to
develop a theory for an action or process
that is “grounded” in the viewpoints of the
participants
Systematic grounded theory originated in
1967 with Glanzer and Strauss as a contrast
to the a priori theoretical orientations in
sociology
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded Theory:
Definition and Background
Grounded
Theory 3


Charmaz (2006) has advocated for a
constructivist approach
Clark (2006) argues that social situations
should be the unit of analysis for grounded
theory
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Types of Grounded Theory Studies:
The Systematic Approach
Grounded
Theory 4



The approach is systematic and is used to develop
a theory that explains a process, action, or
interaction.
The participants are chosen by theoretical sampling
to help the researchers form the best theories
The data is collected mainly through 20-30
interviews during multiple visits to the field to
saturate categories (happenings, events, documents)
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Types of Grounded Theory Studies:
The Systematic Approach
Grounded
Theory 5



The data analysis can alternate with data collection
The data analysis consists of open coding, axial
coding and selective coding with a visual model
developed during the axial coding phase
The theory that is developed is articulated at the
end of the study in a narrative statement, visual
model or a series of hypotheses or propositions
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Types of Grounded Theory Studies:
The Constructivist Approach
Grounded
Theory 6




The approach exists within the interpretive
tradition with flexible guidelines
The focus of the theory is based on the
researcher’s interpretation
The focus in the approach is on learning about
the experiences within hidden networks,
situations, relationships, and making visible
hidden hierarchies of power
The emphasis in the approach is placed on
views, values, beliefs, feelings, and ideologies
of individuals
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Types of Grounded Theory Studies:
The Constructivist Approach
Grounded
Theory 7




The coding emphasizes the use of active
codes such as gerund-based phrases (e.g.,
“recasting life”) (Charmaz, 2006)
The role of the researcher is not minimized in
the process
The researcher brings personal values,
experiences to the process as well as making
decisions regarding priorities and questions to
be asked of the data
The conclusions are suggestive, incomplete,
and inconclusive
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded Theory Research Procedures:
Strauss & Corbin (1990, 1998)
Grounded
Theory 8


Determine if grounded theory is best suited
for the research problem
Focus research questions on understanding
how individuals experience the process and
identify the steps in the process
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded Theory Research Procedures:
Strauss & Corbin (1990, 1998)
Grounded
Theory 9

Conduct interviews with 20-30
participants
 Questions
focus on the steps in the process
 Additional questions focus on what was
central to the process, the causes of the
phenomenon, the strategies employed
during the process, and the effects or
consequences that occurred
 Data collection occurs until there is saturation
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded
Theory 10
Grounded Theory Research Procedures:
Strauss & Corbin (1990,1998)

Data collection proceeds in stages
 Open
coding – researcher forms categories of
information about the phenomenon by
segmenting the information into dimensionalized
categories
 Axial coding – categories are assembled into a
visual model in which the researcher identifies a
central phenomenon (category that describes
what the process is), causes, strategies, contexts,
intervening conditions, and consequences
(outcomes)
 Selective coding – a story line that connects the
categories
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded
Theory 11
Grounded Theory Research Procedures:
Strauss & Corbin (1990,1998)


The researcher develops a visual model that
portrays the social, historical, and economic
conditions that influence the central
phenomenon
The theory that results is a substantive-level
theory that addresses a specific problem or
people
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded Theory Example:
Morrow & Smith (1995)
Grounded
Theory 12

Overview of the study
 The
study focused on the survival and coping
strategies of 11 women that experienced
childhood sexual abuse
 The study included an extensive passage on
data coding of information and memoing
 The authors developed a visual model of the
process that was focused around the central
category of threatening or dangerous feelings
along with helplessness, powerlessness, and lack of
control
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded Theory Example:
Morrow & Smith (1995) (cont.)
Grounded
Theory 13

Overview of the methodology
 The
authors collected data from personal interviews,
focus groups and participant observation
 The authors coded the data and formed categories of
data (open coding)
 The data were reassembled into a visual model which
consisted of a central phenomenon (central category),
causes, contexts, intervening conditions, strategies, and
consequences (outcomes)
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded Theory Example:
Morrow & Smith (1995) (cont.)
Grounded
Theory 14

Features of grounded theory
 The
authors mentioned that their purpose was to
generate a theory using a construct-oriented approach
 The grounded theory procedure was discussed and
used the framework of systematic grounded theory
 The study included a visual model of the theory
 The language of the article was scientific and objective
while at the same time it addressed a sensitive topic
with emotion
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Words to Use in Encoding
a Grounded Theory Purpose Statement
Grounded
Theory 15





Grounded theory
Generate
Develop propositions
Process
Substantive theory
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
The Purpose Statement:
A Grounded Theory Example
Elements of
The primary purpose of this article is to
Grounded Theory
present a grounded
theory
of
academic
grounded theory
Develop a theory
change that is based upon research
•Describe a
guided by two major research
process
questions: What are the major sources
•Theory is based
of academic change? What are the major
on the data from
participants
processes through which academic
processes
change occurs? For purposes of this paper, grounded
theory is defined as theory generated from data
theory
generated
systematically obtained and analyzed
through
the
from data
constant
comparative method. (Conrad, 1978, p. 101)
Grounded
Theory 16
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded Theory:
Overall Rhetorical Structure
Grounded
Theory 17




Present the theory that develops
Often written in a scientific way (e.g., questions,
literature review, methodology, findings,
discussion)
Include open, axial, and theoretical coding
Discuss how the theory relates to existing
knowledge
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded Theory: Broad Writing
Parameters (Strauss & Corbin, 1990)
Grounded
Theory 18



Develop a clear analytic story
Write on a conceptual level with limited
description
Specify the relationship among categories
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Grounded Theory:
Embedded Rhetorical Structure
Grounded
Theory 19

Specify variations and relevant conditions,
consequences and intervening conditions that
impact the theory
 Variations
in types of data analysis presented:
description, categories, linking categories, level
of theory
 Variations in stating the relationships: discursive
statements, formal propositions or hypotheses, a
model, storyline
 Variations in the model or logic diagram: linear,
circular
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Challenges of
Grounded Theory Research
Grounded
Theory 20


The researcher needs to set aside
theoretical ideas or notions so that the
substantive theory can emerge
The researcher may have difficulty in
determining when categories are saturated
or when theory is sufficiently detailed
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Challenges of
Grounded Theory Research
Grounded
Theory 21


The researcher has little flexibility when using
the Strauss and Corbin approach; there is
little flexibility because the theory that is
developed consists of prescribed categories
The researcher will find that the Charmaz
(2006) approach has more flexibility
Creswell Qualitative Inquiry 2e
Reporting Structures
Introduction (problem, questions)
 Research procedures (grounded theory, data
collection, analysis, outcomes)
 Open coding
 Axial coding
 Selective coding and theoretical propositions and
models
 Discussion of theory and contrasts with extant
literature
(Adapted from Strauss & Corbin, 1990)

Auteur
Документ
Catégorie
Без категории
Affichages
6
Taille du fichier
851 Кб
Étiquettes
1/--Pages
signaler