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CCT 333: Imagining the Audience in a Wired World

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CCT 333: Imagining the
Audience in a Wired World
Class 3 : People, Activities,
Context and Technologies
Norman’s Principles
• (Continued from last week…see other
two in last week notes)
• Constraints
• Mapping
• Consistency
• Affordances
Constraints
• Does the system deliberately constrain
the user’s potential?
• Why would you want to constrain
certain paths of action?
• Physical, logical and cultural constraints
Mapping
• Does the system mimic existing logical
and cultural spatial/temporal relations?
• Problems with arbitrary or random
mapping
Consistency
• Does a given action produce similar
results every time?
• Is the interface consistent with similar
products?
Affordances
• Does the design provide intuitive clues
on what can or should be done?
• An overused word?
PACT
•
•
•
•
•
People
Activities
Context
Technologies
Holistic, interdependent relations among
these factors
People
• Or, people come in different shapes and
sizes
• User groups are rarely monolithic or
homogeneous - often a range of
complexity to consider
• Limits can be considered or maintained
(and is often done - examples?) but
should be done with utmost care
Physical differences
• Height/weight
• Strength and ability differences (coupled
with age or training)
• Use of senses
• Physical abilities
Psychological/Social
• Language variety and ability
• Cultural, social and religious custom
• Learning styles (e.g., multiple
intelligences)
• Attention and memory
• Mental models
Use Differences
• People of different sizes and
backgrounds have different needs
• Novice/experienced users
• Lay/expert users
• Irregular/Regular users
• Organizational/Broad Social contexts - a
range of abilities, skills, requirements
Activities
• Or, people of different shapes and sizes
need/want to do different things
• Purpose of activity and what
enables/constraints it
• Also unintendend purposes and
consequences - many of which you want to
design against (esp. since people have a
tendency to do what they want, not what they
need, should or must do…)
Temporal Dimension
• Regular vs. infrequent activity - e.g., twenty
times a day vs. once every twenty yrs.
• Time as pressure - does it work when
necessary or under acute load?
• Continuous vs. discrete action - one-off action
vs. process, and how process is handled
• Response time - does it react reliably as
required? Synchronous vs. asynchronous
Cooperation and
Complexity
• Solo work or requires cooperation with
others (if so, interdependencies and
bottlenecks become critical variables)
• Defined vs. vague tasks - defined can
be programmed and controlled, vague
requires a lot more flexibility
Safety and Error
• Some tasks are mission-critical - failure
is not an option
• Handling error and unintended
consequence - users behave in
mysterious ways (and we shouldn’t be
surprised by this…)
• Error and unsafe use - not just user
education, but also buy-in
Task and Mediation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Input methods
Data structures
Information Flow
Output methods
Feedback
Not just important in computing physical examples?
Context
• Or, different people do different things in
a range of environments (some of which
you can’t easily control)
• Contextual factors may greatly impact
people and what tools they use to deal
with their tasks - or may be easily
predictable and planned for…
Physical Context
• Indoors? Outdoors?
• Mobile? Stationary? (Implications to
Access?)
• Loud? Quiet?
• Busy? Still?
• Dangerous? Safe?
Social/Org Contexts
• Access to assistance?
• Social norms of use (and their
evolution?)
• Organizational - internal conflict
between individual and collective goals?
(CSCW examples?)
Technologies
• The things that a range of diverse people use
to accomplish an equally diverse range of
tasks in particular contexts (getting confusing
yet? It should be…)
• Technology broadly defined - realization and
formalization of technique (Ellul)
• Design issues similar to #9 and #10 of
“activity” section (task and mediation…)
Cui Bono? A slice of
healthy skepticism
•
•
•
•
Two definitions and its sources
a) figurative/actual - to what good purpose?
b) literal - who benefits?
Technology is rarely the answer to all social
or organizational problems
• Esp. in environment of thoughtless
technology hype, asking this question helps.
Design Cycles
• Balancing these (often conflicting)
principles is the whole point (and the
whole problem
• “There are no rules…and here they
are.” (McCloud, 2006)
(Universal?) Elements of
Design
•
•
•
•
•
Users and their Requirements
Conceptual Design
Physical Design
Protoyping/Evaluation
Evaluation and Testing
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