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Building Evidence on the Impact of Community

IntégréTéléchargement
Promise of Preschool in Africa:
Community-Based Preschools
in Rural Mozambique
Pablo A. Stansbery
Sebastian Martinez
Sophie Naudeau
Vitor Pereira
Melissa Kelly
Jodie Fonseca
Save the Children
2012
Save the Children and World Bank
Evaluation conducted in partnership with Elma Philanthropies, American Idol, BNPP, SIEF and 3ie.
Save the Children’s ECD Programs Around the World
Globally, Save the Children supports early childhood care and development programs
in more than 55 countries
Save the Children US supported
programs
Save the Children member
supported programs
Multiple Settings of ECCD
Developmental Domains
Approaches to
Learning
ECD in Mozambique
5
• 4.5 million children < 5 years old
• 66 thousand (4%) are currently enrolled in
ECD programs.
• Urban, private ECD
• Very few rural programs, where poverty is
more acute.
Mozambique Impact Evaluation Partnership
6

Save the Children ECD Programming (2008)


The World Bank/ 3IE (est. $600K)


2 Foundations (est. $1 million over 2 years)
Technical and financial support for the evaluatio
The Government of Mozambique

Counseling and supervision through the Mozambique ECD
National Network (ADEA)
Save the Children’s Center-Based ECD Model
o
ECD Model:
• Center based
• 35 students per class
• 2 teachers per class
• 3 hours, 15 minutes
per day
Preschool Teacher Characteristics
Characteristic
Age
31
Female =1
93.2%
Single = 1
29.31%
Number of children
Has a child enrolled in the preschool
3.05
54.39%
Years of education
6.16
Hours per day dedicated to the preschool
4.34
Hours per month dedicated to activities related to the preschool:
trainings and meetings
3.64
Works outside of the preschool
1%
ECD Evaluation Sample
9
 76 communities in 3 districts of
Gaza Province
 Random assignment of program:


30 treatment
46 control
 Random sample 2000 households with
children 36 to 59 months at baseline:

1 “target child” per HH for testing
 Community Survey (76 leaders)
 School survey (1020 first graders)
Survey Instruments
10
Household Questionnaire (income, wealth,
consumption, time use)
Child Development Measures (3 to 5 years-olds)
 Language Test (based on TVIP)
 Ages and Stages (ASQ)
 Strengths and Difficulties (SDQ)
 Anthropometrics (weight, height)
School Readiness Measures
 Education Development Instrument (EDI)
Preschool Survey (endline)
Community Leader survey
Target child characteristics (2008)
Variable
Treatment
Control
T-stat
51.03%
48.79%
1.16
46.69
46.58
0.34
Mother tongue is Changana
97.19%
97.49%
-0.19
Speaks Portuguese
13.10%
10.35%
1.09
Orphan
9.84%
10.15%
-0.17
Weight for age z-score
-0.40
-0.30
-1.31
Height for age z-score
-2.00
-1.89
-1.01
Body mass index
1.43
1.41
0.13
21.91%
2.55
15.76%
2.56
2.60
-0.15
Girls
Age in months
Has been sick in the last month
Average number of meals in the previous day
Caregivers characteristics (2008)
Variable
Treatment
Control
T-stat
81.17%
85.55%
-1.73
34.60
34.48
0.17
Speaks Portuguese
49.78%
47.67%
0.47
Knows how to read
61.01%
60.99%
0.0047
1.36
1.38
-0.59
Married or cohabiting
68.22%
66.39%
0.78
Widowed
2.29%
3.19%
-1.13
Single
11.57%
8.81%
1.62
Worked for cash in the last week
13.37%
8.68%
2.55
Female=1
Age in years
Schooling (completed years)
Development risks at baseline
Risks
Percentage
Stunting
42.3%
Risk of delays in precise motor
coordination (36-41 months)
70%
Risk of delays in problem solving (3641 months)
65%
Orphaned
10.01%
Caregiver does not know how to read
42%
Caregiver does not speak Portuguese
51.35%
Source: Authors calculation from the baseline data for the impact evaluation (2008)
TVIP 2008
IMPACT (2010)
15
Preschool Enrollment (3 to 9 years)
Probability of enrollment in escolinhas across time
0
.05
.1
.15
.2
.25
By Treatment and Control
01jan2000
01jan2002
01jan2004
Control
01jan2006
Time
01jan2008
Treatment
01jan2010
Conclusions
• ECD/Preschool model effective at:
o Target Children:
• Increasing primary enrollment & attendance
• Improving problem resolution skills, fine motor skills
• Improve pro-social behaviors and decrease hyperactivity
behavior
• Improving hygiene practices and reduce diarrhea & skin infex
• Reducing children’s time working on family farm
o
Older Siblings:
• Increasing in school enrollment
o
Parents:
• Changing parenting practices
• Increasing labor market participation
Conclusions
• ECD Model not effective at:
o
o
Improving child growth (stunting)
Improving language development
• Biologically is very difficult to alter these
dimensions of child development after age 3
Impact on Primary School Enrollment (5 to 9 year olds;
N=2737)
Currently Enrolled=1
Preschool
0.80
Control
0.81
0.78
0.67
0.71
0.64
22%
18%
ALL
Impact (%)
Boys
14%
Girls
Impact on Primary School Enrollment
Child Ever Attended School =1 (5 to 9 years)
olds)
School Attendance increases by 0.9pp for every
month of Preschool Enrollment
110%
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
0
2
4
6
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36
Preschool
Control
Impact on Learning Time
Hours in preschool or primary school last week (5 to 9 year
olds)
Hours of School per Week
Preschool
Control
Impact (%)
55
43
33
20.4
19.9
19.4
13.9
13.1
14.6
ALL
Boys
Girls
Preliminary Results-DO NOT CITE
Time on Other Activities: Work on Family Farm
Hours per Week
Escolinha
2.54
Control
Impact (%)
2.63
2.45
0.95
0.81
0.63
ALL
Boys
-68%
Preliminary Results-DO NOT CITE
Girls
-61%
-76%
Advocacy and Policy Platforms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mozambique Gov’t
Tanzania National ECD
CIES (May, 2012)
Professional Articles
ADEA Trienale (Burkina
Faso 2012)
6. Brookings Institute
Global Compact on
Learning
7. UNICEF Innocenti
Centre for Research
8. Webinars – PEPFAR
(Spring 2012)
9. Newspaper Opinion
Pages (Spring 2012
10. USAID Child Survival
Summit (Summer 2012)
11. Global Campaign for
Education
pstansbery@savechildren.org
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