Alternative Education Programs for English Learners Chapter 6 of Improving Education for English Learners: Research-Based Approaches, By Kathryn Lindhom-Leary and Fred Genesee Dual Language Approaches Definition: Alternative language, literacy and academic instruction Use of two language to educate language minority students ◦ and language-majority students in a two-way immersion model Three Primary Models Transitional Bilingual Developmental Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Topics Developed Rationale for & advantages of Dual Language Approaches (DLA) Primary Characteristics of DLAs Existing Research on DLA Research to guide effectiveness, implementation, and learner needs in DLAs ◦ Based primarily on empirical (evidence based) research Rationale and Advantages of DLA Globalization Linguistic & cultural competence play key roles in affording students the tools they need to take advantage of the opportunities of globalization “Competitive edge” in the global marketplace. Rationale and Advantages of DLA Neurocognitive Advantages Advanced levels of bilingual competences are associated with cognitive advantages in “executive control process” or ability to: 1. focus attention when potentially conflicting information 2. select relevant over irrelevant information 3. switch strategies when situation not forthcoming Rationale and Advantages of DLA Home Language Advantages ELs with advance levels of competence in certain aspects of the home language demonstrate superior achievement in English literacy compared with ELs with lower competency in home language abilities Rationale and Advantages of DLA Schooling & Cultural Competence DLAs provide many conditions that are essential for the reduction of prejudice and discrimination DLAs provide communication skills & cultural awareness to facilitate intergroup contact & appreciation Miss attributions (behaviors of respect different from main-stream America) are less likely to happen Program Characteristics Chart p. 328 With a partner: Think, write, pair share Find two similarities and one difference Share with partner How does this impact our work? Program Characteristics Transitional Bilingual Program “Early Exit Bilingual Education” ◦ Content subjects in home language with English Language Development (ELD) ◦ Once “sufficiently” proficient, move to English mainstream program Purpose: To ensure mastery of grade level academics To facilitate & speed up English acquisition Program Characteristics Developmental Bilingual Program “Late Exit Bilingual Education” Maintenance Bilingual Education One-way program, only minority students working to maintain home language, or full proficiency in home language Purpose: Promote high levels of academic achievement in all curricular areas and full proficiency in both home language & English for academic purposes *If master grade level curriculum in home language, usually decrease achievement gap & often outperform EOs. Program Characteristics Two-Way Immersion Program Two-way Bilingual Education Dual Language Immersion ◦ Provides education opportunities for all students to become bilingual ◦ Provides integrated language & academic instruction for native speakers of English & native speakers of another language Purpose: High academic achievement 1st & 2nd language proficiency Cross cultural understanding Student Achievement & Program Outcomes Content Area Achievement Proficiency Terms Monolinguals: development of one language (English Only students, EO) Simultaneous Bilinguals: develop two languages, same as monolingual, resulting in some mixing or code switching Second language learners, or successive bilinguals: acquired one language before schooling, second language later *Oral proficiency CRITICAL for general education and academic success of English learners Research shows….. For L1 & L2 development of ELs Second language learning is a challenging & lengthy process Second language learning results in only partially learned English & exhibiting substantial errors in primary language Two-way program students lag behind EOs in primary & normally catch up by 5th grade Research shows….. For L1 & L2 development of ELs With increase oral proficiency in English, ELs 1. Use more English and therefore learn even more oral English 2. Interact more frequently with EOs & therefore learn more English 3. Use more complex language-learning strategies, particularly integrating with others & will monitor their own learning 4. Display wider variety of language skills, including academic use of language, higher order question & definitional skills Research shows For length of time to become proficient A minimum of 2-5 years for advanced proficiency in oral English, regardless of program type. Bilingual program students learned English faster than those in EO programs ◦ *Little research on native language proficiency Research shows Evaluation study of Proposition 227 Overall rate of reclassification rate has increased in past decade, with 8.9 years as average for language proficiency Current probability of an EL being redesignated to FEP status after 10 years in CA is less than 40% 75% of all ELs are NOT reclassified as proficient after 5 years of schooling Two-way immersion programs are more optomistic-32% proficient by 5th, 52% by 6th, 72% by 7th *Limited study Research shows For Level of Proficiency Improvement from beginning to middle levels of language proficiency is relatively rapid, but progress from middle to upper levels is slower Example Strategies for Oral Interaction of Content Two strategies that increase the opportunity for EL students to practice their oral language in relation to content are: ◦ Think, pair, share ◦ Choral response ◦ Now think of three strategies that you have found to be effective in increasing the oral language development within classroom instruction. Be prepared to share… Summary For Oral Language Development “there is a “scarcity of empirical research on this topic. … “It is clear that oral English proficiency of an academic nature correlates positively with English reading achievement, and oral Spanish proficiency is associated with Spanish reading achievement. [however,] “theses gaps …. means that there is little empirical research on which to plan appropriate instruction in oral language development for English learners. Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2010 Research shows For Literacy & Bilingual Development “similar” finding for ELs & EOs Both influenced by: ◦ oral proficiency ◦ phonological ability ◦ metacognitive skills linked to reading Research shows For ALL students to learn to read English Minimum oral proficiency necessary With oral proficiency, achieve greater success in reading Oral proficiency most important in later stages of reading acquisition Diversity & depth of vocabulary knowledge Understanding story structure & strategies for constructing meaning from text Research shows English literacy is more complex for ELs Due to cross-linguistic influences Examples: Phonological awareness, and then word-decoding, correlate significantly & positively for EOs. ELs struggle more with these in early stages of language acquisition Successful ELs see literacy strategies as similar in both languages & will employ effective metacognitve strategies to comprehend text. Less successful ELs see reading in 1st & 2nd language as separate abilities, or confusion, not seeing or accessing the common strategies Research shows For reading & writing development in dual language programs In Two-way immersion, ELs made good progress in both languages & developed highlevel reading & writing skills ◦ Meeting or exceeding grade level norms ◦ Narrowing the achievement gap (by grade 5) ◦ Achieving same grade level of writing scores in 6th for both English & Spanish (writing had more mechanical errors) Summary For Literacy Development “Studies indicate that, given effective programs, ELs can acquire reading & writing skills in English that are virtually comparable to those of EO students, and at the same time, they acquire strong reading & writing skills in Spanish.” Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2010 Research shows A benefit of bilingual education over English Only instruction ELs may achieve higher than ELs in EO mainstream classes ELs with extended programs outperform ELs with short-term bilingual instruction Research shows More English instruction does not lead to higher achievement in English Bilingual education as resulting in higher English achievement Increased amount of exposure to English has not resulted in increased achievement for ELs In 50/50 vs. 90/10 bilingual programs, ELs in 50/50 (more English) did not achieve higher levels in English, but rather ◦ Both programs developed high levels of oral proficiency ◦ 50/50 achieved higher in early grades, while 90/10 were comparable in later grades p.351 Research shows Student achievement in dual language programs ELs on norm referenced tests, in late elementary grades scored significantly higher than ELs in general in the state, and on par with EOs in EO classrooms ELs in dual programs appear more likely to close achievement gap by late elementary or middle school than EL peers in mainstream classes p.352 Research shows DLAs provide communication skills & cultural awareness to facilitate intergroup contact & appreciation Enrollment in two-way programs, compared with mainstream English-only classrooms, was also associated with greater participation in intergenerational family relationships, more positive attitudes toward bilingualism and more acceptance toward students who differed in language background or physical appearance. Lindholm-Leary and Genesee p. 353 In Conclusion …. Several Authors suggest that there is no one best model that will serve all English Learners at all times. Rather, they point out the importance of providing services for English learners that consider the community context, needs of students to be served, and the resources that are available for implementing the program. Lindholm-Leary and Genesee p. 349 Final Reflection for Our Work How do we take this information and apply it in our role of providing district assistance? ◦ Take 2 minutes to write down one or more ideas. Be prepared to share.