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Alternative Education Programs for English Learners

Alternative Education Programs
for English Learners
Chapter 6 of Improving Education for English
Learners: Research-Based Approaches,
By Kathryn Lindhom-Leary and Fred Genesee
Dual Language Approaches
 Alternative language, literacy and
academic instruction
 Use of two language to educate language
minority students
◦ and language-majority students in a two-way
immersion model
Three Primary Models
Transitional Bilingual
Developmental Bilingual
Two-Way Immersion
Topics Developed
Rationale for & advantages of Dual
Language Approaches (DLA)
 Primary Characteristics of DLAs
 Existing Research on DLA
 Research to guide effectiveness,
implementation, and learner needs in
◦ Based primarily on empirical (evidence based)
Rationale and Advantages of DLA
 Linguistic & cultural competence play key
roles in affording students the tools they
need to take advantage of the
opportunities of globalization
 “Competitive edge” in the global
Rationale and Advantages of DLA
Neurocognitive Advantages
 Advanced levels of bilingual competences
are associated with cognitive advantages
in “executive control process” or ability
1. focus attention when potentially conflicting
2. select relevant over irrelevant information
3. switch strategies when situation not
Rationale and Advantages of DLA
Home Language Advantages
 ELs with advance levels of competence in
certain aspects of the home language
demonstrate superior achievement in
English literacy compared with ELs with
lower competency in home language
Rationale and Advantages of DLA
Schooling & Cultural Competence
 DLAs provide many conditions that are
essential for the reduction of prejudice
and discrimination
 DLAs provide communication skills &
cultural awareness to facilitate intergroup
contact & appreciation
 Miss attributions (behaviors of respect
different from main-stream America) are
less likely to happen
Program Characteristics
Chart p. 328
With a partner: Think, write, pair share
Find two similarities and one difference
Share with partner
 How does this impact our work?
Program Characteristics
Transitional Bilingual Program
 “Early Exit Bilingual Education”
◦ Content subjects in home language with English
Language Development (ELD)
◦ Once “sufficiently” proficient, move to English
mainstream program
 To ensure mastery of grade level academics
 To facilitate & speed up English acquisition
Program Characteristics
Developmental Bilingual Program
 “Late Exit Bilingual Education”
 Maintenance Bilingual Education
 One-way program, only minority students working
to maintain home language, or full proficiency in
home language
 Promote high levels of academic achievement in all
curricular areas and full proficiency in both home
language & English for academic purposes
 *If master grade level curriculum in home language,
usually decrease achievement gap & often outperform
Program Characteristics
Two-Way Immersion Program
 Two-way Bilingual Education
 Dual Language Immersion
◦ Provides education opportunities for all students
to become bilingual
◦ Provides integrated language & academic
instruction for native speakers of English & native
speakers of another language
 High academic achievement
 1st & 2nd language proficiency
 Cross cultural understanding
Student Achievement &
Program Outcomes
Content Area Achievement
Proficiency Terms
Monolinguals: development of one
language (English Only students, EO)
Simultaneous Bilinguals: develop two
languages, same as monolingual, resulting in
some mixing or code switching
Second language learners, or successive
bilinguals: acquired one language before
schooling, second language later
*Oral proficiency CRITICAL for general
education and academic success of English
Research shows…..
For L1 & L2 development of ELs
 Second language learning is a challenging
& lengthy process
 Second language learning results in only
partially learned English & exhibiting
substantial errors in primary language
 Two-way program students lag behind
EOs in primary & normally catch up by 5th
Research shows…..
For L1 & L2 development of ELs
 With increase oral proficiency in English, ELs
1. Use more English and therefore learn even more
oral English
2. Interact more frequently with EOs & therefore
learn more English
3. Use more complex language-learning strategies,
particularly integrating with others & will
monitor their own learning
4. Display wider variety of language skills, including
academic use of language, higher order question
& definitional skills
Research shows
For length of time to become proficient
 A minimum of 2-5 years for advanced
proficiency in oral English, regardless of
program type.
 Bilingual program students learned English
faster than those in EO programs
◦ *Little research on native language proficiency
Research shows
Evaluation study of Proposition 227
 Overall rate of reclassification rate has
increased in past decade, with 8.9 years as
average for language proficiency
 Current probability of an EL being
redesignated to FEP status after 10 years in
CA is less than 40%
 75% of all ELs are NOT reclassified as
proficient after 5 years of schooling
 Two-way immersion programs are more
optomistic-32% proficient by 5th, 52% by 6th,
72% by 7th
*Limited study
Research shows
For Level of Proficiency
 Improvement from beginning to middle
levels of language proficiency is relatively
rapid, but progress from middle to upper
levels is slower
Example Strategies for Oral
Interaction of Content
Two strategies that increase the opportunity for EL
students to practice their oral language in relation
to content are:
◦ Think, pair, share
◦ Choral response
◦ Now think of three strategies that you have
found to be effective in increasing the oral
language development within classroom
instruction. Be prepared to share…
For Oral Language Development
“there is a “scarcity of empirical research on this
topic. …
“It is clear that oral English proficiency of an
academic nature correlates positively with English
reading achievement, and oral Spanish proficiency is
associated with Spanish reading achievement.
[however,] “theses gaps …. means that there is little
empirical research on which to plan appropriate
instruction in oral language development for English
Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2010
Research shows
For Literacy & Bilingual Development
 “similar” finding for ELs & EOs
 Both influenced by:
◦ oral proficiency
◦ phonological ability
◦ metacognitive skills linked to reading
Research shows
For ALL students to learn to read English
 Minimum oral proficiency necessary
 With oral proficiency, achieve greater success
in reading
 Oral proficiency most important in later
stages of reading acquisition
 Diversity & depth of vocabulary knowledge
 Understanding story structure & strategies for
constructing meaning from text
Research shows
English literacy is more complex for ELs
 Due to cross-linguistic influences
 Phonological awareness, and then word-decoding,
correlate significantly & positively for EOs. ELs
struggle more with these in early stages of
language acquisition
 Successful ELs see literacy strategies as similar in
both languages & will employ effective
metacognitve strategies to comprehend text.
 Less successful ELs see reading in 1st & 2nd
language as separate abilities, or confusion, not
seeing or accessing the common strategies
Research shows
For reading & writing development in
dual language programs
 In Two-way immersion, ELs made good
progress in both languages & developed highlevel reading & writing skills
◦ Meeting or exceeding grade level norms
◦ Narrowing the achievement gap (by grade 5)
◦ Achieving same grade level of writing scores in 6th
for both English & Spanish (writing had more
mechanical errors)
For Literacy Development
“Studies indicate that, given effective programs,
ELs can acquire reading & writing skills in English
that are virtually comparable to those of EO
students, and at the same time, they acquire
strong reading & writing skills in Spanish.”
Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2010
Research shows
A benefit of bilingual education over
English Only instruction
 ELs may achieve higher than ELs in EO
mainstream classes
 ELs with extended programs outperform ELs
with short-term bilingual instruction
Research shows
More English instruction does not lead to
higher achievement in English
 Bilingual education as resulting in higher English
 Increased amount of exposure to English has not
resulted in increased achievement for ELs
 In 50/50 vs. 90/10 bilingual programs, ELs in 50/50
(more English) did not achieve higher levels in
English, but rather
◦ Both programs developed high levels of oral
◦ 50/50 achieved higher in early grades, while 90/10 were
comparable in later grades p.351
Research shows
Student achievement in dual language
 ELs on norm referenced tests, in late
elementary grades scored significantly higher
than ELs in general in the state, and on par
with EOs in EO classrooms
 ELs in dual programs appear more likely to
close achievement gap by late elementary or
middle school than EL peers in mainstream
Research shows
DLAs provide communication skills & cultural
awareness to facilitate intergroup contact &
Enrollment in two-way programs, compared with
mainstream English-only classrooms, was also associated
with greater participation in intergenerational family
relationships, more positive attitudes toward bilingualism
and more acceptance toward students who differed in
language background or physical appearance.
Lindholm-Leary and Genesee p. 353
In Conclusion ….
Several Authors suggest that there is no one best
model that will serve all English Learners at all
times. Rather, they point out the importance of
providing services for English learners that
consider the community context, needs of
students to be served, and the resources that
are available for implementing the program.
Lindholm-Leary and Genesee p. 349
Final Reflection for Our Work
How do we take this information and
apply it in our role of providing district
◦ Take 2 minutes to write down one or more
ideas. Be prepared to share.
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