Chapter 5: Programs and Practices for Effective Sheltered Content Instruction Jana Echevarria and Deborah Short Presented to Title III Leads November 17, 2010 Magdalena Ruz Gonzalez, LACO and Lizette Diaz, SBCSS Outcomes of this Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Determine the relevance of Specifically Designed Academic Instruction in English in California, pp. 251-252 Rationale and Components of SDAIE in providing Els access to content subjects, pp. 253-262 Pedagogical Models of Sheltered Content Instruction with a focus on SIOP (Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol), pp. 262-264 Components of the SIOP model, pp. 264-271 Application of the SIOP model, pp. 272-276 Research Syntheses, pp. 276-286 Program Models, pp. 287-297 Professional Development, pp. 297-301 Determine the relevance of Specifically Designed Academic Instruction in English in California According to the California Education Code, students are to be provided with access to the core curriculum through a methodology known a SDAIE (specifically designed academic instruction in English). SDAIE is not defined operationally, and as a result the implementation has been inconsistent among classrooms and schools. SIOP (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) is one comprehensive model of sheltered content instruction as empirical research shows when it is implemented well, it results in gains in student academic literacy (Echevarria, Short, and Powers 2006) Rationale and Components of SDAIE in providing Els access to content subjects Gives English Learners access to the core Data indicates that Els are not receiving appropriate linguistic instruction Proposition 227 creates SEI which is not operationally defined Current Practice: Content based ELD- primary goal: ELD, secondary is intro to content Sheltered Content- primary goal: Content Objective, secondary is academic language The Need for Academic Language Defining academic language is complex- the intersect of language, content and tasks TASK-Language & Task-Content & Language- Content & Task (see 5.2 , p 261) Pedagogical Models of Sheltered Content Instruction with a focus on SIOP (Sheltered Instruction Observational Protocol) CALLA (Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach) was created in the mid 1980s, (Chamot and O’Malley 1987,1994) A model designed to develop academic English skills through explicit instruction and use of language strategies These learning strategies, characterized by Chamot and O’Malley as metacognitive, cognitive and social/affective. SDAIE (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) California Teaching Credentialing defines SDAIE as “a component of a comprehensive program for English learners, consisting of strategies, materials and techniques to provide those at intermediate and advanced level of English access to grade-level core curriculum in English.” However, while valuable these are not sufficient to ensure access to content for English Learners… SIOP SIOP (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) has a research base for over 10 years. While it began as a lesson observation protocol to guide researchers in 1996, it evolved into a lesson planning and delivery approach. This sheltered instruction model was field tested over four years on teacher implementation and student effects. Finally, in 2000, the final format consisting of 30 features organized into 8 components was realized by Echevarria, Vogt and Short 2000, 2004, 2008). The Evolution of Sheltered Instruction. See figure 5.1 (p. 256) Grammar translation approach Direct Method- Audiolingual-Communicative approach Content learning emphasis English skill development in subject areas Access through SDAIE strategies. Content and language development emphasis The Eight Components of the SIOP Model Lesson Preparation-content and language objective Building Background-connections to prior knowledge Comprehensible Input-demos, modeling, role playing, graphs, previews, hands-on Strategies-explicit instruction, practice Interaction-oral language proficiency, text interactions Practice & Application-a variety of activities Lesson Delivery-knowing that content and language objectives were met Review & Assessment-wrap up Application of the SIOP model Beginning on page 272, we can find two lessons drawn from the research and coaching observations. The first lesson, which begins on page 272 was designed and taught by a 3rd grade teacher at Lela Alston Elementary School in Phoenix, AZ The second lesson, which begins on page 274 was designed and taught by a sheltered biology teacher at Central Falls High School in Central Falls, RI You may find both these lesson plans beginning on page 314-321 Research Syntheses Key findings from National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth and CREDE The processes of L2 literacy development are influenced by a number of variables (L1 literacy, SES) Certain L1 skills transfer to English Literacy Teaching the 5 major components of reading to Els is necessary but not sufficient for developing academic literacy. Academic literacy in L1 facilitates the development of academic literacy in English. High quality instruction for Els is similar to high quality instruction for EOs, but Els who are not at advanced levels need accommodations. Els need enhanced, explicit academic vocabulary development. SIOP Model Research Student Writing Assessment Study Evaluation Research-Isaac School District in Phoenix, AZ Quasi-Experimental Research-New Jersey Experimental Research-funded by US Dept of Education for the National Center for Research an the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners Future Research? Placement of Els in sheltered courses Instructional grouping configuration Empirical research on other models of sheltered instruction Most effective instructional features Instruction for beginning speakers and Newcomers Program Models Sheltered Instruction is both instructional pedagogy and program design to help give access to the core content for Els. Successful programs as discussed in other chapters of this book, are designed around a district’s goals, resources and needs of their Els students. EL students may take a combination of program models, for example ELD (English Language Development) and Sheltered classes in the content areas. Emperical evidence is not available to support whether EL students should be grouped homogeneously in sheltered courses or mixed with former Els and EOs. Program implementation should consider: Scheduling for students Access to and completion of courses necessary to graduate from HS Flexible pathways into regular curriculum Explicit timeline and set of coursework Extension of the school day, before, after, or summer. Sheltered Instruction Programs Goals where learners can acquire content knowledge, concepts, and skills at the same time that they improve their English language skills. Specifically developed curricula that include language goals supported by strategies and techniques to support content standards and increase literacy skills. Els in Special Education benefit as well from these and other effective instructional components that address their language needs. Two case studies, Lela Alston Elementary School, Phoenix, AZ and Hoover High School, San Diego, CA are highlighted Programs …continued Newcomer Designed for recent immigrants with little or no English skills placed in specialized language setting designed to accelerate the gaps in their educational background and integrate them into the US school system. Usually for a limited period of time, use of ESL, primary language, bilingual or sheltered instruction. General Education Classes Els or former Els (Redesigned Fluent English Proficient) may have a wide range of academic proficiency levels. Utilizing multiple data sources, helps identify how to group students strategically. Partner and group work help facilitate differentiation so students may work at their own level. In practice, many teachers make little attempt to differentiate lessons to meet the individual needs of Els. Professional Development Effective SIOP Professional Development includes: -PLC -Reflection on practices -Discussing the implementation -Coaching with knowledgeable trainers -Modeling of lessons -Refining lesson plans based on student assessment -Agreed upon strategies implemented school-wide Conclusion SIOP is a comprehensive model of instruction for lesson planning, delivery, and reflection.Without systematic, language development, students never develop the requisite academic language skills needed for success in mainstream classes, for meeting content standards and for passing standardized assessments in their second language.