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ALARM SIGNS” IN INFANTS AND PARENTS.

IntégréTéléchargement
Transcultural issues in
working with families
in the
Midwest USA
Dr. Maldonado
Menninger
Transcultural/Midwest USA
 “Euro/American” families in perinatal
period
 Majority of families in infant mental
health clinic (>80%)
 Transcultural issues in caregiving
2
Transcultural Issues. Crying
 Perception of crying more often as
voluntary, child having some control
 Crying as an undesirable behavior
 Crying as a “control strategy” by
infant
 Crying as “neediness” or excessive
dependency
3
Crying 2
 Fear of spoiling the child if response
to crying
 Expectation child should sooth
him/herself
 Tendency to promote less crying and
less “demandigness”
4
Transcultural .Feeding
 Feeding as a “ scientific issue”, e.g.
number of calories, etc.
 Interest in schedules and in routine
 Feeding the infant not in social context
 Promote self feeding, holding bottle by
self, as soon as possible.
5
Feeding 2
 “balanced diet” and need to eat what
is in the plate
 Eating as an individual activity
performed by oneself
 Appropriate behavior during meals.
6
Transcultural. Sleeping
 Child sleep in his/her own room
from the start
 Parent’s sleep should not be
disturbed
 Child should learn to go back to
sleep by him/herself
7
Sleep 2
 Concern about co-sleeping
 Fostering too much dependency
 Behavioral methods to abolish
sleeping difficulty
8
Transcultural/ Discipline
 Importance of abolishing
undesirable behaviors.
Punishment or “natural
consequences”
 Learning from one’s mistakes
9
Discipline 2
 Child making own choices
regarding behavior
 Child learning consequences
 Child ready to face “ real world”
and its negative consequences
10
Discipline 3
 Early use of “distancing techniques”
like time-outs, sending to room, etc.
 Withdrawing of attention, interaction
 Withdrawing of privileges.
 Negative behavior is followed by
negative consequence to extinguish it
11
Transcultural. Verbal
interactions
 Parent verbalizes love for the child
 Parent interested in child having a
positive self-esteem
 Parent wants child to be assertive,
speak his mind, take care of self.
12
Transcultural. Verbalization
 Use of language to promote self
control in the child
 Use of language/based methods to
promote self-control, heeding
admonitions, “redirect” behavior.
13
Transcultural. Attachment
 Parent initiates separations during
first year of life
 Substitute care, by non-relatives, is
acceptable
 Child learns to interact with a variety
of new people
 Changes in care-givers in day care
14
Attachment 2
 Child expected to deal with
separations early on
 Importance of relying on oneself
 Learning to deal with changes,
mobility, separations early on
15
Attachment 3
 Fear that the child might be “ too
dependent”
 Fear the child may be a “wimp”
 Learn to stand up by oneself, to be
“tough”, and to be strong
 Suppress neediness and anxiety
16
Transcultural Midwest USA
 Prepare the child for the future
 Prepare child to deal with separations
 Prepare child to deal with changes in
people around him/her
 High social, geographic mobility
17
Midwest USA
 Importance of relying on one’s own
resources
 Importance of overall independence
 Importance of being strong
 Need to deal with the real world, and
consequences of one’s actions
18
Transcultural Midwest USA
 Promote more “insecure” attachment?
 Supress signs (feelings) of neediness,
dependency and insecurity?
 Promote premature “false self-reliance”
and sense of independence
19
Infant Hypersensitive
 Promote early disappointments?
 Early sense of loneliness?
 Dependency on things (transitional
objects) vs. people?
20
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