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Behavior-Based Robotics

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In the name of Allah
Introduction to Robotics
Introduction to Robotics
 Leila Sharif
 l_sharif@sharif.edu
http://ce.sharif.edu/courses/84-85/1/ce516/
 Lecture #5: Kinematics
Introduction to Robotics
Lecture Outline
 A brief history of robotics
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Feedback control
Cybernetics
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Early robotics
 Robotics today
 Why is robotics hard?
 Degrees of Freedom (DOF)
 holonomicity, redundancy
 Legged locomotion
 stability (static and dynamic)
 polygon of support
 Wheeled locomotion
 Trajectory/motion planning
Introduction to Robotics
Robot Joints
Linear
Rotary
Spherical (Sliding)
 Difficult to control
 Not Common in Robotic
Introduction to Robotics
Robot Joints
Most Robots have either a linear
(prismatic) joint or a rotary (revolute)
joint
Linear - hydraulic or pneumatic
cylinder
Rotary - most are electrically driven,
either by stepper motor or servomotos
Introduction to Robotics
Cartesian/Rectangular/gantry (3p)
Introduction to Robotics
Cylindrical (R2P)
Introduction to Robotics
Spherical / Polar (2RP)
Introduction to Robotics
Articulated/Revolute (3R)
Introduction to Robotics
Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm
SCARA (2RP)
2 Revolute joint in parallel to allow
robot move in horizontal plane
1 linear joint to move vertically
Introduction to Robotics
Robot Reference Frame
World Reference Frame
Joint Reference Frame
Tool Reference Frame
Introduction to Robotics
Programming Mode
Physical Setup
Lead through or teach mode
Continuous walk-through mode
Software mode
Most industrial robots can be
programmed in more than one mode
Introduction to Robotics
Robot Characteristics
 Payload
 Reach
 Precision (validity)
 Repeatability (variability)
Introduction to Robotics
Workspace
Introduction to Robotics
Robot Languages
 Microcomputer Machine Language Level
(machine language)
 Point-to-Point Level
The coordinate of points entered sequentially
 Primitive Motion Level
Interpreter based
 Structured Programming Level
Compiler based
 Task-Oriented Level
No actual language
Introduction to Robotics
3P3R Robot
1,2,3 : prismatic joints
4,5,6 : revolute joints
7 : gripper
MOVE(1,10)
DMOVE(1,10)
Write a program to pick and place an
object from one place to another
Introduction to Robotics
Sample of a Program in IBM’s
AML (A Manufacturing Language)
SUBR(PICK-PLACE);
PT1:NEW<4,-24,2,0,0,-13>;
PT2:NEW<-2,13,2,135,-90,-33.>;
PT3:NEW<-2,13,2,150,-90,-33,1>;
SPEED(0.2);
MOVE(ARM,0.0);
MOVE(<1,2,3,4,5,6>,PT1);
MOVE(7,3);
DMOVE(3,-1)
DMOVE(7,-1.5)
DMOVE(3,1)
MOVE(<JX,JY,JZ,JR,JP,JY>,PT2);
DMOVE(JZ,-3);
MOVE(JG,3);
DMOVE(JZ,11);
MOVE(ARM,PT3);
END;
Introduction to Robotics
Robot Application
 Machine loading
 Pick and place operation
 Welding
 Painting
 Inspection
 Sampling
 Assembly operation
 Manufacturing
 Surveillance
 Medical applications
 Assisting disabled individuals
 Hazardous environments
 Underwater, space and remote locations
Introduction to Robotics
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