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Chapter 5 Section 1 Kush and Egypt

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Chapter 5 Sections 1 and 2
Kush and Egypt
Geography and Early Kush
• A group of people
settled in a region we
now call Nubia.
• These Africans
established the first
large kingdom in the
interior of Africa.
• Development of
Kushite civilization
was greatly
influenced by the
geography of Nubia.
The Land of Nubia
• In ancient times it was
fertile farmland.
Today it is mostly
desert.
• Nubia was rich in
valuable minerals
such as gold, copper,
and stone.
• These natural
resources contributed
to the region’s wealth.
Kush today
Map of Kush
Cataract in Nubia
• The Nile flooded
every year bringing
fresh silt.
• Settlements began
around 3500 BC.
• First kingdom began
around 2000 BC.
• First capital was
Kerma, near a
cataract.
• For many years
cataracts kept Kush
safe from the more
powerful Egypt.
Early Civilization
in Nubia
Agriculture in Kush
Egypt Controls Kush
• Egypt played a great
role in Kush’s history.
• Kushites sent the
Egyptians ebony and
ivory.
• Around 1500 BC
Thutmose I sent an
army to control Kush
and it became a part
of Egypt.
Very
dark
and
heavy
ebony
wood
carving
Egyptian
ivory
comb
from an
elephant’s
tusk
Thutmose I and II
Thutmose I
Reigned
18 years
Thutmose II
Reigned
22 years
Effects of the
Conquest
• Kush remained an
Egyptian territory for
the next 450 years.
• *Egypt influenced in
the following ways:
• Religion*
• Clothing styles*
• Pyramid building*
• Language*
An example of Egyptian
influence on Kushite culture can be
found in religion.
• Around 700 BC the
Kush rules Egypt
armies of Kush,
under the
leadership of King
Kashta, swept into
Egypt and
conquered it.
Egypt had become
weak under the
rule of pharaohs
who were poor
leaders.
Kushite
warriors
Piankhi
• Piankhi, 751-716 BC,
was the son of
Kashta. He was a
strong and
successful military
leader. He extended
Kush’s kingdom from
Napata to the Nile
Delta. He loved his
horses and was
buried with eight of
them!!!!
• The Kushites ruled
Egypt for about 40
years. In 670 BC, the
powerful army of the
Assyrians from
Mesopotamia, invaded
Egypt. The Assyrian
army had iron weapons
and were much stronger
than the
Kushite/Egyptian bronze
weapons. After about 10
years of fighting, the
Kushites were
completely driven out of
Egypt.
End of Kushite
Rule in Egypt
Stronger
Iron
weapons
• Meroe, located on the
banks of the Nile, was
Kush’s new capital.
Its location was
perfect because
goods could be sent
down the Nile.
• Gold and ebony was
found nearby.
• What is a trade
network?
• It is a system of
people in different
lands who trade
goods back and forth.
* Early Nubian
Civilization was
Based on Trade*
Iron and
gold
Kush’s Trade Network
Imports and Exports
• What is an export? It
is an item made in
one place that is sent
to another region for
trade.
• What is an import? It
is an item made in
another region
brought in for trade.
Kush
export…
Ivory
Kush
import…
Egyptian
jewelry
• *Kush was influenced
greatly by Egypt:
clothing, temples,
calling their rulers
pharaohs and burying
them in pyramids.*
*Kush had many
elements of their culture
that were unique such
as their houses, and
written language.* In
addition to Egyptian
gods they worshiped
their own gods, such as
Apedemek, a lionheaded god.
Kushite Culture
Typical
Kush
home
Meroitic Language of Kush
Women in Kushite Society
Unlike other women in
the world, Kush women
were greatly valued and
expected to be active in
their society. Many
women fought along
with the men during
war. Many women held
positions of authority,
especially in the area of
religion.
Queen
Shanakhdakheto
Ruled from
170-150 BC
1st
Kushite
Queen
probably
gained
rule
after her
father or
husband
died
• It is believed that the decline of
the Kush empire was caused Decline and Defeat
by farmers allowing their cattle
to over-graze, eating all the
grass. Without grass, the soil
had nothing to hold onto. The
wind blew all the top soil away.
Without soil the farmers could
no longer grow enough crops
to support the population.
• Iron workers cut down all the
trees for their furnaces. They
No top soil or
could no longer make iron tools
trees
or weapons to trade and their
economic power declined.
Rise of Aksum
Artist’s
drawing of
ancient
Aksum
• Aksum is located
southeast of Kush on
the Red Sea. It power
rose because of its
location and increase
trade. In 350 AD the
Aksumite army of
King Ezana destroyed
Meroe and took over
the kingdom of Kush.
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