Colonial Period 1607-1776 Trends, Events and Ideas that Influenced the Founders Liberty, Equality, Rights, Democracy and Opportunity Essential Question: What elements of colonial society affected the thinking of the nation’s founders and their articulation of the 5 ideals? Geography Native Americans Puritan heritage British tradition enlightenment thought – Capitalism Colonial Social Structure Geography 1. LAND!!! 2. ISOLATION With so much land available, colonial society had a much higher percentage of land owners. And a much different conception of opportunity Geographic Isolation Colonists were too far removed from the British center of power. It is not with us as with men whom smalle things can discourage or smalle discontentments cause to wish themselves home again” William Bradford " Native and Immigrant culture influence each other. New technology, European religion and the exchange of money for land profoundly change Indian society. Native Americans knowledge of the environment, political structures, and threat influence European immigrants Haudenausanee - People of the Long House (united 1100’s/1500’s) 5 Nations – – – – – Seneca Oneida Mohawk Onondaga Cayuga The powerful Iroquois Federation dominated the Great Lakes region Self-Government Develops. Early examples of democracy Mayflower Charter House of Burgesses Colonial Assemblies Puritan Heritage Plymouth Colony “Pilgrims” separatists 1620 44 of 102 die 1st winter Mayflower Compact 7,000 pop. 1791 Absorbed by MBC Massachusetts Bay Colony chartered non-separatist Puritans 1628 20,000 immigrants 1630-1642 Puritan Self-Government 40% of adult males voted in provincial elections (Puritan white males only) town elections - all adult males Clergy could not be office holders – separation of church and state beginnings elected a governor annually theocratic “purpose of government is to enforce God’s laws” “Puritan Ethic” aka the Protestant Work Ethic Hard work and monetary success are “Godly” and signs of God’s approval British Tradition Rights of Britons consent of the governed (land-owners) (No taxation without representation, later) limited monarchy rule of law sanctity of private property rights of petition British Tradition Language Customs Culture Trade network British Empire Mercantilism: an economic system (Europe in 18th century) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests – A nation’s wealth is measured in its supply of bullion (precious metal) – Nations must export more than they import (favorable balance of trade) – Government will regulate commerce, especially with tariffs, trade restrictions – Colonies exist to benefit the mother country Enlightenment Ideas John Locke David Hume Jean-Jacques Rousseau natural rights social contract Republicanism – – – – liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty civic virtue right of rebellion rational mind John Locke “Two Treatises On Government” – natural rights – social contract – government by consent of the people Capitalism Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations capitalism: An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market – an economic system private property right to profits freedom of investment free markets individual decision-making Colonial Social Structure 1700 population 300,000 total (20,000 are black) Availability of Land – landed class – social mobility – no hereditary aristocracy Growth of a prosperous merchant/shipping class (free trade) Indentured servants Slaves 1775 population 2.5 million total (500,000 are black) Increasing population – high birth rate (avg. age 16) – immigration: free and forced Population pressure increases social tension – Less available land – Competition for jobs While colonial leadership remains in the hands of established landholders and merchants, landless resent British land policy Slavery How did slavery affect the founders? In profoundly contradictory ways!!!!! Enslavement of Indian POWs and entire villages. The actual number of men, women and children who were snatched from their homes in Africa and transported in slave ships across the Atlantic, either to the Caribbean islands or to North and South America, will never be known. Writers vary in their estimates, but there is no doubt that their number runs into millions. 1666-1776: imported by the English to New World – 3 million (250,000 died in transit) 1716-1756: Average annual import = 70,000 (total 3.5 million) 13 Colonies: 17th century = 10,000 18th century = 390,000 Total Estimates range as high as 40 million The above paragraph and statistics are excerpted from the following article by Jose Luciano Franco: "The Slave Trade in the Caribbean and Latin America." in The African Slave Trade from the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Century Reports and papers of the meeting of experts organized by Unesco at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 31 January to 4 February 1978. The figures are taken from Morel's calculations as reproduced by Professor Melville J. Herskovits and cover the period 1666-1800: Auguste Francois Briard Essential Question: What trends in colonial society affected the thinking of the nation’s founders? Geography Native Americans Puritan heritage British tradition enlightenment thought Capitalism Colonial Social Structure Give examples that show how each of these may have influenced the Founder’s ideals.