Chapter 12 Interpersonal Relationships, Collaboration and Organization HCI: Developing Effective Organizational Information Systems Dov Te’eni Jane Carey Ping Zhang Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Road Map Context Foundation 4 Physical Engineering 1 Introduction 2 Org & Business Context 3 Interactive Technologies Application 7 Evaluation 8 Principles & Guidelines 5 Cognitive Engineering 6 Affective Engineering 11 Methodology 9 Organizational Tasks 10 Componential Design 12 Relationship, Collaboration & Organization 13 Social & Global Issues 14 Changing Needs of IT Development & Use Additional Context Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Learning Objectives Understand and apply the organizational models at the group and organizational levels Understand and apply consumer models, models of trust, and TAM (the Technology Acceptance Model), and understand how they relate to e-commerce Understand how these various models form the theoretical underpinnings for HCI theory, guidelines, and principles in collaborative situations Be able to associate the various models with HCI practice Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Interpersonal Relationships This chapter looks at the needs of two or more individuals working with a system, examining HCI beyond the single user. We study systems that support interpersonal relationships, as they exist within organizations and between organizations and their customers. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Collaboration Collaboration software: Allows people to work together and includes groupware, email, instant messaging, data conferencing, and videoconferencing, among others. The growth of the Internet has increased access to collaboration software and made it more affordable. An early framework for understanding collaborative or computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW) Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Collaborative Software Time Same Different Same Electronic meeting room, local conferencing, control rooms Logs, team coordination, resource allocation Different Chat, IM, remote video conferencing E-mail, bulletin boards, blogs, collaborative writing, collaborative design Place Figure 12.1 Classification of Collaborative Software (CSCW) Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Collaborative Software – building blocks All collaboration software designs have three commonalities. The first is a shared interface.. The second commonality is that the shared user interface must be “WYSIWIS” or “What you see is what I see.” The third commonality is that each participant also has a “private” space. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Public Space Private Space Figure 12.2 Skype® global telephony system illustrating public and private workspace Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Collaboration – Semantic and Syntactical Level The objects and operations available in the private workspace are similar to those we have already examined. Their primary purpose is to allow the user to compose in private and, when finished, upload the information to the public or shared space. The shared workspace enables the operations that directly support collaborative work. For example, in the system shown in Figure 12.2, users operate on objects such as “Contact,” “Message,” and “Call.” Users can manage a contact by adding, editing, or deleting the contact from their contact list. They can initiate or terminate a call and add a contact to a call. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Information Richness Theory (Daft and MacIntosh; 1981) Time Asynchronous Synchronous Face-toFace VideoConferencing TeleTelephone Instance Voice Threaded Email Conferencing Conversation Messaging Messaging Discussion Lean Rich Richness Figure 8.7 Information Richness Theory Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Collaboration – Task Level Collaboration includes many different tasks such as sharing knowledge, coordinating action, informing colleagues or subordinates of events, and meeting. The task level for collaboration is based on communication. One such task is “chatting” or meeting to communicate ideas. Another task is collaborative document creation Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Shared Document Creation Figure 12.3 MS Word® tracking feature for shared writing of a manuscript (this book). Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Trust Trust is the willingness to rely on an exchange partner due to confidence that the partner will fulfil obligations. Trust is essential to the success of e-commerce transactions Online consumers must be confident that transactions are: Executed completely and accurately. Privacy is protected and Transaction details such as credit card numbers are safe from potential theft One of the signals of secure transactions is a pop-up dialog box that alerts the user when he or she is about to enter or leave a secure transaction environment. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Information Richness Theory (Daft and MacIntosh; 1981) Information Richness Theory states that ambiguity can be reduced through richer media selection and face-to-face communications provide the richest information. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Social Identity and De-individuation (SIDE) Processes Social Identity and De-individuation Processes such as email reduce the impact of social norms and constraints. Systems diminish social identity and deindividualize the user population and result in deregulated behavior In turn, some variables, such as belongingness, motivation, self-efficacy and ownership among others, are reduced Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Work Group Level Group support systems (GSS) can be defined as any technologies that support group or collaborative work. The technology can be as simple as regular electronic mail systems or as complex as structured meeting support software. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Group Tasks – Table 12.1 Classification of Group Tasks Type of Task Group Losses Planning tasks—generating plans Coordinating, projecting, production blocking Creativity tasks—generating ideas Withdrawing, asymmetry, production blocking Intellective tasks—solving problems with a correct answer Groupthink, problem solving Decision-making tasks—dealing with tasks for which an answer is judged to be correct Groupthink, joint judgment Cognitive conflict tasks—resolving conflicts due to different understandings of the issues Resolving conflict Mixed-motive tasks—resolving conflicts due to different values Resolving value-laden conflict Competitive tasks—resolving conflicts due to power Power games Psychomotor tasks—performing according to objective standards Limited capacity EMS – Electronic Meeting Systems An EMS is typically organized in a conference room that has a network of individual computer stations but also includes one or more large public displays. For logistics and control: For idea generation: For analysis: For choice: Virtual Teams Virtual teams (i.e., distributed teams that rely to a large extent on information technology in order to collaborate) have become an important form of work. These teams can form for a one-time effort or continue to work together on a long-term project. Some teams meet face-to-face at the outset of their teamwork and continue to meet virtually; others never meet physically. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Virtual Meetings Figure 12.5 System to support virtual meetings (by Interwise). Culture and GSS Hofstede’s Model of Cultural Differentiation includes 4 dimensions including: power-distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualistic-collectivistic, and masculinity-femininity Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Design issues raised by Culture: Language Icons and symbols Color Sound User acceptance testing Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Leadership and GSS Leadership Theory Leadership style impacts the effectiveness of group systems. Leadership Context Composition Group Interaction GSS Technology Figure 12.6 Group Model of Leadership Outcomes Enterprise-level Systems Wiki Think of a dynamic Web site that anyone can not only read but also edit and is used to create and share knowledge among members of an organization or community. This is a very crude description of Wiki as a collaborative system. The name Wiki means “quick” in Hawaiian. It’s quick to learn and quick to create and share knowledge. One of the most popular Wiki-based systems is the Wikipedia, known as the free online encyclopedia (http://en.wikipedia.org). Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Wikipedia Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Wiki – JotSpot New versions of Wiki are improving and adapting Wiki to business environments. A leading open-source supplier, JotSpot, is supplying versions of Wiki to serve as enterprise systems. They include more control mechanisms and more structured representations of knowledge and information. The idea is that the work processes use Wikibased systems so that the actual work process becomes the knowledge managed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc JotSpot Figure 12.8 JotSpot Web site. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Enterprise or Organizational Level Anthony’s Triangle – Pyramid classifies the levels of information systems and the levels of managerial users of these systems. System Types Managerial Levels Perspectives Strategic Executives Executive Support Systems (ESS, DSS, ES) Middle Management Management Information Systems (MIS) Knowledge Workers Office Automation Systems (OAS) Supervisors Transactional Information Systems (TIS) Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc } Operational ESS (top level of Anthony’s Triangle Figure 12.10 ESS dashboard interface. Te’eni Cognitive-Affective Model of Communication (2001) Te’eni Cognitive-Affective Model of Communication suggests that communications are very complex and that communications strategies should reduce the levels of complexity. Three main ideas: Communications have inputs Communication processes are both cognitive and affective. Communication processes impact actions and relationships Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Te’eni Cognitive-Affective Model of Communication (2001) Five area of focus for designers of communications systems including: Mechanisms for structuring the context information. Feedback that enhances sender control Augmentation of attention and focus. Conveying and monitoring affectivity. Presenting receiver’s perspective Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Communications Support Systems Cognitive-affective model of communication (Te’eni): Explains how effective communicators adapt their behavior to reduce complexity Figure 12.11 Sample cognitive map presents user’s mental model. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Augmented E-mail Figure 12.12 kMail-augmented e-mail showing context information. Innovation Diffusion Theory Innovation Diffusion Theory explains the way in which organizations implement innovations. Rogers (1983) lists five key characteristics about successful innovations: Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trial ability Observability Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Innovation Diffusion Theory Figure 8.6 Rogers’ Innovation Diffusion Model Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Innovation Diffusion Theory Beath and Ives (1989) suggest that organizations that exhibit the following characteristics are most likely to foster successful IT champions: Norms and policies that encourage and reward innovation, Interdependence or interconnectedness between members Slack resources for scanning and experimentation Network-forming devices Specialization of individuals rather than generalization, and Placement of a high organizational value on accumulation of knowledge or learning. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Technology Acceptance Model and the Organizational Level Perceived usefulness Organizational Variables (average age, gender, etc) Attitude toward Using systems Behavioral intention to use Perceived ease of use Figure 12.14 Extended Technology Acceptance Model. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Actual use E-commerce: Linking the customer to the enterprize Trust seems to be essential to the success of e-commerce transactions. Online consumers must be confident that transactions are executed completely and accurately. The importance of trust suggests that design aspects of the e-commerce transaction interface must be executed with trust issues in mind. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Figure 12.15 Security Alert dialog box promoting trust. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Consumer Behavior Models Trust and TAM in online shopping Online trust is comprised of: a belief that the vendor has nothing to gain by cheating, a belief that there are safety mechanisms built into the Web site, and the existence of a standard interface. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Consumer Models Beach’s Image Theory of Screening states that decision-making is a two-stage process and screening is the first stage followed by choice. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Table 12.2 Steps in the Consumer Decision Process (EBM) Example Operations Step Recognize need Identify needs by organizing display consistent with the way products are organized in private context or by reminding consumer of needs on the basis of user’s history. Search information Easy navigation in e-store by consistent and known structures. Providing personalized information that eliminates irrelevant information. Evaluate alternatives Easy evaluation by attributes or aspects (such as price) defined to be important to the particular consumer. Easy access to objective evaluations. Purchase Make purchasing attractive by stimulating positive affect (pleasant music and colors). Make purchasing easyby providing a shopping cart to easily manage the products purchased or by adding a “product on sale” before payment. Build trust in the system (e.g., secure payment). Evaluate after purchase Provide post-sale support such as tracking orders and online help and repair service. Summary This chapter presents the foundational models and frameworks for interpersonal relationships within the organizational context. Trust is discussed as a construct that is important to relationships between two entities. Various models that help us to understand the work group level and the organizational level are presented. The last section presents two consumer models from the marketing literature, both of which have implications for human– computer interactions in Web site interactions. It is clear that human–computer interaction (HCI) takes place within an organizational context and that context impacts HCI in many ways.