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Chapter 11 - Intelligence

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Chapter 11 - Intelligence
Do I belong in this class?
Just Kidding
Intelligence & brain anatomy
•
Mild relationship between brain size, shape,
convolutions, etc. & intelligence
–
Neural plasticity – ability to grow neural connections in
response to the environment
•
–
More grey matter in memory, attention, & language = higher
intelligence
•
•
More neural connections = higher intelligence
Area may influence ability
Function
–
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Frontal lobe seems to organizing area
Brain speed influences intelligence
•
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Perceptional speed
Neurological speed
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Fast reaction on simple tasks predicts performance on complex tasks
Intelligence Assessments
•
tests that measure mental aptitudes compared
to others and gives them a numerical score
Origins
•
–
Binet – school achievement
•
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Assumed that development of intelligence was the same
for everyone but we progress at different rates
Used mental age to predict child’s success in school
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Not designed to measure ability to learn only ability in a grade
Terman – innate IQ
•
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Stanford-Binet test
IQ = (mental age/chronological age) x 100
–
•
100 = average intelligence
Test was used to evaluate immigrants & proposed to
evaluate who should reproduce
Modern tests
•
Aptitude tests
–
•
Achievement tests
–
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predict ability to learn/perform skill
check for learning
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
–
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11 subtests
Scores on verbal comprehension, perceptual
organization, working memory, & processing speed
Principles of test construction
•
Standardization
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Representative sample determines scores
•
•
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Flynn effect – rising test performance scores = recalibrating
tests
•
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Normal distribution or bell curve
Normal scores fall within 2 standard deviations
Why? Nutrition, schooling, stimulation, smaller family, etc
Reliability
–
•
Scores must be consistent (repeated) to be reliable
Validity – does it measure what it’s supposed to
–
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Content validity vs. predictive validity (criterion-related validity)
Aptitude tests lose their predictive powers with age
•
Lower correlations with each successive tests
Dynamics of Intelligence
•
Stability vs. change
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Relatively little predictability of level of intelligence prior to age 3
From age 4 – intelligence scores predict adolescent and adult
intelligence scores
After age 7 intelligence scores stabilize
–
•
–
•
Stability of math and English SAT and GRE scores
Long-term study (Deary, 2004) confirms
Extremes
–
Low extreme
•
•
•
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Cognitive Disabled/mental impairment – low intel. score & inability to
adapt
Down syndrome – extra chromosome (a cause of c.g.)
Care has changed
High extreme
•
•
High intelligence scores don’t predict social adeptness
Inclusion vs. tracking
Genetic & Environmental
Influences
Who gets the credit for your
smarts (or lack there of)?
Genetics
•
twin studies
– nearly identical IQ scores
– same amount of grey matter
•
•
genetic mapping
trappings of heritability
Environment
•
orphanage study
–
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poverty affects nutrition therefore development
–
•
deprivation of normal interaction delays
development
poor environment not as “advantaged” as others
school has an effect
–
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higher IQ scores in vs. out of school
Flynn effect – the gradual increase of intelligence
from generation to generation
Group differences
•
Ethnic differences in IQ scores do exist
–
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Avg. scores white = 100, black = 85, Hispanic approx. 92.5
Not able to predict just an average
Race differences
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alikeness between races, more variety within races
•
–
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genetically more similar to some races that look less alike
A social definition not biological – diverse ancestry
Asians score highest on math aptitude
•
•
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Attend 30% more school days
More studying out of school
1930’s vs. today = blacks vs. whites
•
nutrition, ed., opportunities, etc.
Group differences
•
Gender differences
–
girls score higher on spelling, verbal and non-verbal
ability (memory), sensation (touch, taste, odor)
boys are more prevalent in underachievement =
special education
math
–
–
•
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boys outnumber girls at the highest and lowest levels
boys rate higher on spatial reasoning
•
boys show math problem-solving abilities
Bias in Intelligence Testing
• Cultural differences because of experience
not ability
• Is the test less valid for some groups?
– Statistically
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