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AutoCAD Architecture 2008: Part I: Getting Started

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Chapter 1
The Purpose and Promise
of Special Education
Exceptional Children: An Introduction
Title, Edition
to Special Education, 9th Edition
ISBN 013514454X
ISBN
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Who Are Exceptional Children?

Exceptional children differ from the norm (either below or above) to such
an extent that they require an individualized program of special education
– (learning, behavioral, physical, sensory, speech, gifted)

Four key terms
 Impairment - The loss or reduced function of a body part or organ
 Disability - Exists when an impairment limits the ability to perform
certain tasks
 Handicap - A problem encountered when interacting with the
environment
 Not all children with a disability are handicapped
 At risk - Children who have a greater-than-usual chance of developing
a disability
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
2
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
How Many Exceptional Children
Are There?



More than 6 million children and youth with
disabilities, ages 3 to 21, received special education
services during the 2005–2006 school year
Children in special education represent about 12% of
the school age population
The percentage of students receiving special
education under the learning disabilities category has
doubled (from 23.8% to 45.3%), whereas the
percentage of students with mental retardation has
decreased by significantly more than half (from
24.9% to 8.9%) since the government began
collecting data in 1976 - 1977
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
3
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Exceptionalities & Prevalence

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Specific Learning Disabilities
Speech & Language Impairments
Other Health Impairments (cancer, diabetes)
Mental Retardation
Emotional Disturbance
Autism
Multiple Disabilities
Developmental Delay (3-9 Year Olds)
Hearing Impairments
Orthopedic Impairments (skeletal system)
Visual Impairments
Traumatic Brain Injury (acquired injury)
Deaf-blindness
45.3%
19.0%
9.3%
8.9%
7.9%
3.2%
2.2%
1.3%
1.2%
1.0%
0.4%
0.4%
< 0.1%
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
4
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Labeling and Classifying Exceptional Children?
Federal law requires labeling for services
 Must be identified as having a disability
 Classified in one of the state’s categories


Some contend labeling stigmatizes children and denies
them opportunities in the general mainstream.

Others argue it is a workable system and provides a
prerequisite for offering needed special education services

Educators have provided alternatives, which focus on
educational variables – according to curriculum and skill
areas - computing, reading, etc.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
5
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Why Do We Label and Classify Exceptional
Children?

Possible disadvantages of labeling

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Focuses on what students cannot do
May stigmatize the child and lead to peer rejection
May negatively affect self-esteem
May cause others to have low expectations for the student
Disproportionate number of culturally diverse groups are labeled
May take the role of fictional explanatory constructs
Takes away from the child’s individuality
Suggest that there is something wrong with the child
Labels have permanence
Basis for keeping children out of the regular classroom
Requires great expenditure that might be better spent on planning
and delivering instruction
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
6
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Why Do We Label and Classify Exceptional
Children?

Possible benefits of labeling

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Recognizing differences in learning and behavior is the
first step to responding responsibly to those differences
A label can provide access to accommodations and
services
May lead to more acceptance of atypical behavior by
peers
Helps professionals communicate and disseminate
research findings
Funding and resources are often based on categories
Helps advocacy groups promote more awareness
Makes special needs more visible
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
7
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Why Are Laws Governing the Education of
Exceptional Children Necessary?

An Exclusionary Past
 Children who are different have often been denied full and
fair access to educational opportunities

Separate Is Not Equal
 Special education was strongly influenced by social
developments and court decisions in the 1950s and 1960s
(e.g., Brown v. Board of Education – Segregation based on
race)

Equal Protection
 All children are entitled to a free, appropriate public
education
 PARC v. Commonwealth of PA (1972) – class action –
parents challenged law denying a public school education to
certain children considered unable to profit from attending.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
8
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

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Public Law 94-142 passed by congress in 1975
Amended 5 times
1990 amendments renamed the law Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act (IDEA)
Most recent reauthorization of IDEA in 2004, P.L 108-466 – often
referred to as the Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act
Changed what takes place in every school building in the US
Changed the roles and responsibilities of general and special
educators, and administrators
Reflects society’s concern that individual with disabilities
deserve the same rights and privileges all other citizens enjoy.
Every child receives FAPE
Coordinated interagency system for providing early intervention
services to infants and toddlers
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
9
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Six Major Principals of IDEA


Zero Reject – Schools must educate ALL
children (PA ages 3-21)
Nondiscriminatory Identification and
Evaluation – all assessments must be
non-biased – must not discriminate based
on race, culture or language – may be
tested in native language – multiple
assessments required.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
10
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Six Major Principals of IDEA

Free Appropriate Public Education
(FAPE) – all children with disabilities
regardless of type or severity must
receive FAPE – provided at public
expense – an Individualized
Education Program (IEP) must be
developed – services must be based
on peer-reviewed research
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
11
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Six Major Principals of IDEA

Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) –
children with disabilities disabilities MUST be
educated with children without disabilities to the
maximum extent appropriate – removed to
separate class or schools ONLY when the nature
or severity of the disability is such that they
cannot receive an appropriate education with
their non-disabled peers when provided the
necessary aids and services – must provide a
continuum of services.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
12
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Six Major Principals of IDEA


Due Process Safeguards – school must provide
safeguards to parent outlining their rights – if
district & parents cannot agree on services,
parent may proceed with a Due Process Hearing
– usually a last resort – increasing in number.
Parent & Student Participation and Shared
Decision Making – school must collaborate with
parents and student with disabilities in the
planning and implementation of services – When
appropriate the student attends meetings and
has a voice.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
13
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Other Provisions of The Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act


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Extending special education services to infants, toddlers,
and preschoolers (ages 3-5)
 Services and prescribed and implemented according
to an Individualized Family Services Plan (IFSP)
Related services and assistive technology
 Specially equipped school bus – medication during
the day –communication devices – occupational
therapy – physical therapy – Braille readers, etc
Federal funding of special education
 Promised to pay 40% of excess cost – expenses
above the average per pupil cost – Feds never lived
up to their financial obligation
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
14
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Legal Challenges Based on IDEA


Extended school year
 Armstrong v. Kline (1979) – parents of 5 students with severe
disabilities claimed their children regressed during the summer
months
 The IEP team must determine whether, without services, there
is a likelihood of substantial regression of critical life skills
caused by a school break and it is expected that the student will
not recoup those lost skills within a reasonable amount of time
following the school break
 States and districts now provide summer programs for identified
children
Related Services
 Occasionally can be highly controversial
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
15
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Legal Challenges Based on IDEA

Disciplining students with disabilities
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Stuart v. Nappi – student was expelled for behavior - Parent claimed the
expulsion would deny FAPE – Court agreed –
In other cases expulsion and suspension have been upheld if the school
could prove the behavior was not related to the student’s disability
IDEA contained provisions for schools to discipline students with
disabilities in the same manner as students without disabilities with a
few provisions
If school seeks a change of placement (suspension/expulsion) in excess
of 10 days, the IEP team must review the relationship between the
misconduct and the students disability – Manifestation Determination
– if misconduct is NOT related to disability – may proceed with same
discipline as other students, however must provide educational services
in alternative placement
Disabled student brings a gun; possesses, uses or sells drugs, student
may be removed to alternative placement for up to 45 school days –
misconduct may or may not be related to disability.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
16
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Legal Challenges Based on IDEA

Right to Education
 Based on a child’s specific disability it is often difficult to
determine if they are receiving the best services in the Least
Restrictive Environment.
 Timothy W. v. Rochester S.D. - Child with severe disabilities
was denied services because the district believed he could not
benefit from special education services – Judge ruled the federal
law was not explicit regarding a “rare child” and ruled in favor of
the district

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Court of Appeals overturned the lower court’s decision ruling that
public schools must educate ALL student with disabilities
regardless of how little they might benefit.
NOTE: Decisions should always be made with the child’s best
interests in mind!
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
17
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Related Legislation

Gifted and Talented Children
IDEA does NOT apply to children who
are gifted and talented
 The Gifted and Talented Children’s
Education Act of 1978 provides
financial incentives for states to
develop programs for students

Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
18
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Related Legislation


Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
 Extends civil rights to people with
disabilities
 Adaptations must be extended to all
participants (adapting a chemistry lab for a
student in a wheelchair)
Americans with Disabilities Act
 Extends civil rights protection to private
sector employment, all public services,
public accommodation, and transportation
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
19
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
No Child Left Behind

Intent is to improve the achievement of
all students

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All students will be proficient in reading and
math by 2014
Student will be taught by highly qualified
teachers in all subjects
Based on accountability and scientifically
based programs of instruction
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
20
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
No Child Left Behind

Accountability for student learning

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States are expected to make Annual Yearly
Progress
NCLB Requires assessments of 95% of students
Tests are disaggregated for race, poverty,
disabilities, and English proficiency
Published annual report cards of student progress
School who DO NOT make annual yearly
progress and targeted for “School Improvement”
or Corrective Action”
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
21
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
No Child Left Behind

Emphasis on what works based on clearly
demonstrated rigorous scientific research

Implications for students with disabilities

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Apply to all students including those with
disabilities
Some students with moderate disabilities are
provided with accommodations.
Students with severe disabilities can take
alternative assessments.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
22
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
What is Special Education

Special education as intervention
 Preventive: Designed to keep minor problems from
becoming a disability
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Primary prevention - designed to reduce the number of new
cases of a disability (school-wide systems for positive
behavior)
Secondary prevention - aimed at individuals who have
already been exposed to or are displaying specific risk
factors and is intended to eliminate or counteract the effects
of those risk factors ( special interventions for student
exhibiting early signs of misbehavior)
Tertiary prevention - aimed at individuals with a disability
and intended to prevent the effects of a disability from
worsening (intensive interventions for students identified
with behavioral disorders.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
23
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
What is Special Education

Special education as intervention
 Remedial: Attempt to eliminate the effects of a
disability

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Teach skills for independent and successful functioning
May be academic (learning to read), social (initiating a
conversation, self-care (dressing), vocational ( job skills)
Compensatory: Enable successful functioning in
spite of the disability


A head stick as a pointer for a child with cerebral palsy
Template over a key board for a student with poor fine
motor skills.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
24
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
What is Special education

Special education as instruction

Who - the exceptional children whose educational
needs necessitate an individually planned
program of instruction

Teachers provide the instruction – BOTH GENERAL
AND SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS
It is a team approach including specialists
(psychologists, speech therapists, parents, etc.)
What - Special education can sometimes be
differentiated from general education by its
curriculum
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All student should have access to the general education
curriculum as appropriate.
More severely disabled children may require a functional
curriculum (independence skills – self help skills –
VITAL)
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
25
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
What is Special education

Special education as instruction
 How - Special education differs from
general education by its use of specialized,
or adapted, materials and methods


Materials may be adapted for students –
teachers may use sign language – Special
Education is where everyone gets what they
need not the same instruction.
Where - Special education can sometimes
be identified (but not defined) by where it
takes place.

Special Education is a service not a place.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
26
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Current and Future Challenges

Close the research-to-practice gap

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Teachers must be aware of research findings
about teaching and learning and imbed these
practices in their instruction
Research has revealed a great deal about early
reading instruction to minimize potential reading
problems
How to adapt curriculum & materials in content
area classes to maximize success
Secondary special education programs that
facilitate a smooth transition from school to work
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
27
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Current and Future Challenges

Increase the availability and intensity of early
intervention and prevention programs
 It is better to intervene earlier than later

Help students with disabilities transition from
school to adult life
 To many young adults are unsuccessful
and unhappy in their post-school
adjustment
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
28
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Current and Future Challenges

Improve the special education—
general education partnership

Special & general educators must
develop strategies for working
together and sharing their
knowledge and resources.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
29
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
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