close

Se connecter

Se connecter avec OpenID

AutoCAD Architecture 2008: Part I: Getting Started

IntégréTéléchargement
Chapter 3
Collaborating with Parents
and Families in a Culturally
and Linguistically Diverse Society
Exceptional Children: An Introduction
Title, Edition
to Special Education, 9th Edition
ISBN 013514454X
ISBN
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Support for Parent and Family
Involvement

Parents and the family:
 Are the child’s best advocates
 Are a child’s first teachers
 Know certain aspects of their children better
than anyone else
 Have the greatest vested interest in seeing
their children learn
 Must live with the outcomes of decisions made
by education teams all day, every day
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
2
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Three Factors Responsible for an Increased
Emphasis on Parent and Family
Involvement



Parents want to be involved in their child’s education
 Parents were an important catalyst of PL 94142
Educational effectiveness is enhanced when parents
and families are involved
 Repeated research and practice demonstrates
the benefits
The law requires collaboration
 Each reauthorization of IDEA has strengthened
and extended parent and family participation
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
3
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Benefits of Family Involvement


Increased likelihood of targeting meaningful IEP
goals
Greater consistency and support in the child’s two
most important environments

Increased opportunities for learning and development

Greater access to expanded resources
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
4
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Understanding Families of Children with
Disabilities

Adjustment process for parents includes feelings of:
 Shock, denial, and disbelief
 Anger, guilt, depression, shame, lowered self
esteem, rejection of the child, and over
protectiveness
 Acceptance, appreciation, and pride

Beyond acceptance, parents develop an appreciation
for the impact their child had on the family
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
5
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
The Many Roles of the Exceptional Parent
Caregiver - Additional needs of an exceptional child can cause stress
Provider - Additional needs often create a financial burden
Teacher - Exceptional children often need more teaching to acquire skills
Counselor - Must often help their child cope with the disability
Parent of Siblings Without Disabilities - Meet the needs of their other
children too
Behavior Support Specialist - Some have to become skilled behavior
managers
Marriage Partner - Having a child with disabilities can put stress on a
marriage
Information Specialist/Trainer for Significant Others - Must train others
Advocate - Advocate for effective educational services and opportunities
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
6
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Six Dimensions of Family-Professional Partnerships
Communication – positive, understandable, respectful
Commitment – share a sense of each others loyalty to the child and each
others belief in the importance of the goals being pursued for the child
Equality – team members feel a sense of equality, all members influence
the outcomes for the child
Skills – All team members demonstrate competence and are able to fulfill
their roles
Trust – share a sense of assurance, reliability, and trust for other team
members
Respect – Regard each other with esteem demonstrated through actions
and communications
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
7
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Principles of Effective Communication





Accept parents’ statements
 Respect parents’ point of view
Listen actively
 Respond to the parents with interest and
animation
Question effectively
 Speak plainly and use open-ended questions
Encourage
 Describe and show their child’s improving
performance
Stay focused
 The purpose is the child’s educational program
and progress
[Source: From C. L. Wilson, 1995]
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
8
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Professional Roadblocks to Communication







Treating parents as vulnerable clients instead of equal
partners
Keeping professional distance (aloofness may hinder
relationship - parents must believe teachers care about
them)
Treating parents as if they need counseling (treating
parent as though the are the problem)
Blaming parents for their child’s condition
Disrespecting parents as less intelligent
Treating parents as adversaries
Labeling parents (resistant, denying)
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
9
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Breaking Down Barriers to Parent-Teacher Partnerships




Not all ineffective parent-teacher relationship are caused by teacher
mishandling – Some parents are just difficult and unreasonable.
Confrontations may occur when a parent is advocating for additional
services and the teacher feels the current services are meeting the
child’s needs.
Arguing is rarely a useful tool in a partnership
Conflict resolution through dialoging
 Reflect – Acknowledge the other persons perspective – they may
be more opened to listening
 Explain – Explain your perspective – be concise – listen twice as
much as you talk
 Understand – try to understand from the parents point of view –
self reflection is very important – What would I do if I was her?
 Negotiate – Work to a mutual solution – don’t give up
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
10
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Potential Barriers on Working with Parents and Families
from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds


Language skills
Home-school partnerships – In some cultures teaming is not
done – Education is the responsibility of the school

Work interference – interferes with a parents involvement with
homework or attending school functions

Knowledge of the school system – low income parents may
not trust the school – sending communications only in English &
scheduling meetings when parents cannot attend reinforce
apprehension

Self-confidence – Parents believe their participation will not help –
they are uncomfortable

Past experiences - many had negative experiences – may have
been victims of linguistic or racial discrimination
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
11
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Understanding and Respecting Cultural
Differences







Many families are English-language learners
Many families live in low-income and poverty
Practitioners should understand that, although parents may not have
finished school or cannot read, they are “life educated” and know
their child better than anyone else
If families are undocumented immigrants, they are naturally fearful of
interaction with anyone representing authority
Families from culturally diverse backgrounds tend to be familyoriented
Culturally diverse families may have different experiences with and
views about disability; and some may hold idiosyncratic ideologies
and practices about the cause and treatment of disability
The educational system may be intimidating to the family
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
12
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Culturally Responsive Services for Families








Have native-speaking staff members make initial contacts
Provide trained, culturally sensitive interpreters during parentteacher conferences and IEP/IFSP meetings
When a language interpreter is not available, use a cultural
interpreter whenever possible for conferences and family interviews
Conduct meetings in family-friendly settings
Identify and defer to the decision makers in the family
Recognize that families from diverse cultures may view time
differently from the way professionals do, and schedule meetings
accordingly
Provide transportation and child care to make it easier for families to
attend school-based activities
Work toward cultural reciprocity – understanding the values and
belief systems of other cultures – some cultures may view a disability
as a blessing or a punishment
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
13
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Home-School Communication Methods



Parent-teacher conferences
 Build rapport
 Obtain information
 Provide information
 Summarize and follow up
Written communication
 Happy Grams and Special Accomplishment Letters
 Two-way home-school reporting forms and dialogue notebooks
 Home-school contracts
 Class newsletters and websites
Telephone communication
 Phone calls to parents
 Voice mail messages for parents
 Transform notes on chart to letters
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
14
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Other Forms of Parent Involvement

Parents as tutors







Properly conducted tutoring can enhance progress
and provide enjoyment to the parent and child
Short sessions – 15-20 minutes
Parents should praise the child’s attempts
Child should have frequent opportunities to respond –
minimal explanation & demonstration
Keep parent responses consistent and positive – must
be on child’s instructional level
Tutoring should extend what was taught in school
Parents should keep records – this will enable parent
and child to see progress.
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
15
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Other Forms of Parent Involvement

Parent education and support groups




Events that explain school policy
Make-it and take-it work shops that parents can use at
home
Session on IEP planning or behavior strategies
Needs assessments for parent training


Open needs assessment – questions are posed such as “I wish I
knew more about _____.
Closed needs assessment – Select from a list of topics they
would like to learn more about
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
16
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Other Forms of Parent Involvement

Parent-to-parent groups

Opportunities to speak with parents who
are experiencing similar circumstances

(Share - Parent support group for
students with physical disabilities)
Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special
Education, 9th Edition
Heward
ISBN 013514454X
17
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.
Auteur
Document
Catégorie
Uncategorized
Affichages
4
Taille du fichier
219 KB
Étiquettes
1/--Pages
signaler